[I] GEMARA, RASHI AND TOSFOS
(a) GEMARA - Maseches Eruvin logically follows Maseches Shabbos. A large portion of Shabbos dealt with the Melachah of Hotza'ah, carrying from one domain to another. The first two chapters of Eruvin discuss when and how carrying is permitted between Reshuyos ha'Yachid which are owned by different parties. The third, fourth, and fifth chapters deal with Eruvei Techumin, or extending one's Shabbos "Techum." The rest of the Maseches returns to the topic of carrying in different domains, and discusses in detail the laws of Eruvei Chatzeros. (See our Background to the Daf: Introduction to Eruvin)
(b) The works of RASHI and TOSFOS on Eruvin are typical of their works on the rest of Shas. In a number of places in Eruvin RASHI offers two different explanations without separating the two with a dividing statement such as "Lishna Achrina" (for example, 43a DH Halachah; 45b DH u'Vilvad; 51b, DH Ihu Keivan; 65b, DH d'Asa Nachri b'Shabbos; 101b DH l'Machar Pose'ach, DH Hadar Bei). These are usually noted by the Bach or Maharsha. The two explanations apparently stem from an earlier and a later commentary that Rashi wrote on Eruvin, which were combined in our prints. (This occurs occasionally in many other Masechtos as well, but it is more common in Eruvin.)
In some places in the Masechta, TOSFOS YESHANIM have been added in a smaller typeface, or in the margin, based on citations in the Maharshal from "Tosfos Shanz" (for example, 40b, 41a, 41b, 42b).
(1) EARLY COMMENTARIES
(a) RABEINU NISIM GA'ON - lived in the 1000's (d. 1050) in Kirouan, North Africa. (Although referred to as "Gaon," he was actually post-Gaonic). His commentary 'Sefer ha'Mafte'ach,' printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, provides background information when the Gemara refers to a concept discussed elsewhere in Shas.
(b) RABEINU CHANANEL - Rabeinu Chananel ben Chushiel, lived in the 11th century. His father Rabeinu Chushiel, was one of the famous "four captives" (a group of Roshei Yeshiva who were captured by pirates and redeemed separately by communities along the Mediterranean coast). He lived in Kirouan, N. Africa after being redeemed from bondage, and it was there that Rabeinu Chananel was born. The commentary of Rabeinu Chananel on Eruvin is printed in the margin of the Vilna Shas, and was recently reprinted from manuscript and annotated by Rav David Metzger (1990, Jerusalem; Wagschal).
(2) SPAIN (ARAGON)
(a) RAMBAN - Rabeinu Moshe ben Nachman lived in the 1200's (d. 1270) and was a student of the RAMAH (Rabeinu Meir ha'Levi Abulefia). Although he authored abundant Chidushim on other Masechtos, he has very few Chidushim on Maseches Eruvin. The Ramban's commentary on Eruvin was published with corrections and short annotations by Rav Aharon Yaffen, in the Chidushei ha'Ramban ha'Shalem of Rav Moshe Herschler. In addition to a limited number of Chidushim on Eruvin, we also have the Ramban's Milchamos Hash-m on the Rif of Maseches Eruvin.
(b) RASHBA - Rabeinu Shlomo (ben Avraham) ben Aderes, d. 1310. The Rashba's primary mentor was Rabeinu Yonah, but he also learned under the Ramban. The Rashba's commentary on Eruvin was recently reprinted, along with corrections and clarifications by Mosad ha'Rav Kook (Jerusalem, 1986) and by Oraysah Press (1993). The Oraysah edition includes a collection of Teshuvos of the Rashba pertinent to the Maseches, as well as the Rashba's Avodas ha'Kodesh (see below, Halachah section IV:1).
(c) RITVA - Rabeinu Yom Tov ben Avraham al'Ashvili lived in the 1300's and was a close disciple of the Re'ah and, later, of the Rashba. The Chidushei ha'Ritva was recently reprinted along with annotations by Rav Moshe Goldstein in the Mosad ha'Rav Kook edition (Jerusalem, 1990).
(d) RAN - Rabeinu Nisim ben Rav Reuven Girondi lived in the 1300's (d. ~1380). His Chidushim are often patterned after those of the Rashba, whose points he further develops. The Ran's Chidushim on Eruvin do not appear in the old, single volume set of the Chidushei ha'Ran on Shas. His commentary on Eruvin was printed recently from manuscript by Machon Yerushalayim (1983), with notes and annotations by Rav Eliyahu Dov Pines.
(e) TALMID HA'RASHBA - originally printed as "Talmid ha'Rashba v'Ritva" and then reprinted as "Talmid ha'Rashba," it was written anonymously on Maseches Eruvin and Maseches Beitzah by someone who refers to the Rashba as "my teacher." He quotes extensively from the Chidushei ha'Rashba, although he never quotes the Rashba's Avodas ha'Kodesh (see below, Halachah section IV:1). The commentary generally follows that of the Rashba. He quotes the Ritva once (end of third chapter).
(3) PROVENCE AND NARVONA
(a) RABEINU YEHONASAN M'LUNIL - lived in the early 1200's and learned under the Ra'avad. He wrote a commentary on the Rif for most of Shas, including Eruvin. His commentary on Maseches Eruvin is the only one which is printed in the Vilna Shas (alongside the Rif, instead of the Ran). It also appears in a separate volume with the rest of his Chidushim on Shas (Peirushei Rabeinu Yehonasan mi'Lunil, Yerushalayim 1985), which includes a commentary on Rabeinu Yehonasan's commentary called Chitzei Yehonasan, by Harav Yakov Meir Padua (original printed in Koenigsberg, 1840 and included in Asifas Zekeinim vol. 2, see below).
(b) SEFER HA'HASHLAMAH - Rabeinu Meshulam ben Moshe wrote Sefer ha'Hashlamah on the Rif in order to complement the Rif by adding to it the Halachos that were not discussed in his commentary. He died in 1238. Included in Rav Moshe Herschler's Ginzei Rishonim (Mechon ha'Talmud ha'Yisraeli, 1967).
(c) SEFER HA'ME'OROS - Rabeinu Meir ben Shimon wrote "Sefer ha'Me'oros" on the Rif. He died in 1264.
(d) ME'IRI - Rabeinu Menachem ben Shlomo (d. 1315) wrote his comprehensive Halachic work, "BEIS HA'BECHIRAH," on 37 Masechtos of Shas. In addition to his Beis ha'Bechirah on Maseches Eruvin, he wrote a separate Sugya by Sugya commentary on Eruvin, CHIDUSHEI HA'ME'IRI, which was printed by Mosad ha'Rav Kook (Jerusalem, 1990, 3 vol.) and annotated comprehensively by ha'Gaon Rav Simchah Zisel Broide (presently Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivas Chevron in Giv'at Mordechai, Jerusalem). The Meiri's running commentary on the Maseches is an invaluable tool for clarifying the fine points of difficult Sugyas. The Me'iri was a student of the Rashba, and sometimes even cites from commentaries as late as those of the Ritva. Almost never mentioning another Rishon by name, the Me'iri created "nicknames" for the commentators from whom he often cites, such as "Gedolei ha'Rabanim" for Rashi, Gedolei ha'Mechabrim for the Rambam, etc. (A convenient list of these, along with the true identities of the Rishonim to whom they refer, can be found at the beginning of the Beis ha'Bechirah on Beitzah.)
(a) OR ZARU'A - Rabeinu Yitzchak ben Moshe (d. 1260) authored the Or Zarua. He studied under many of the great sages of his times, including Rabeinu Yehudah he'Chasid, the Ra'avyah, the Sar mi'Kutzi, and the Ba'al ha'Roke'ach. His son, Rav Chaim Or Zaru'a, wrote a collection of Teshuvos. (Rabeinu Yitzchak named his work "Or Zaru'a" out of his excitement upon noting that the end letters of the verse "Or Zaru'a la'Tzadik..." spell out "R' Akivah.")
(b) TOSFOS RID & PISKEI RID - Rabeinu Yeshaya (ben Mali, or ha'Rishon) d'Trani was one of the leading sages of Italy/Germany during the early 1200's. He compiled a commentary on most of the Masechtos of Shas known as "Tosfos Rid," which was written in several Mahaduros, or drafts. We have the first and the third drafts of his commentary on Eruvin. He also compiled a Halachic summary of the Maseches called Piskei Rid, printed in 1992 by Mechon ha'Talmud ha'Yisraeli.
(c) PISKEI RI'AZ - by the grandson of the above, Rabeinu Yeshaya Acharon Z'L, printed together with Piskei Rid, as listed above. It is often cited in the SHILTEI GIBORIM on the Rif.
(5) STYLED AFTER TOSFOS
(a) SEFER HA'YASHAR - Rabeinu Yakov ben Meir, known as Rabeinu Tam (from the verse "v'Yakov Ish Tam"), wrote Chidushim on Eruvin which are included in the Chidushim section of his Sefer ha'Yashar. Rabeinu Tam was the son of Rashi's daughter. Along with his two brothers, Rashbam (Rabeinu Shmuel ben Meir, the oldest of the three) and Rivam (Rabeinu Yitzchak ben Meir), he was from the first generation of Ba'alei ha'Tosfos. He died in 1171. Sefer ha'Yashar was reprinted based on two original manuscripts, with footnotes, by Rav Shimon Schlesinger (second edition, Jerusalem, 1980).
(b) TOSFOS RABEINU PERETZ - one of the later Ba'alei ha'Tosfos, his commentary was compiled and published by his students (which include the Mordechai), which explains why he is often quoted by name in the commentary. Rabeinu Peretz was a student of Rav Yechiel of Paris and Rav Meir of Rotenberg. In many Masechtos, the commentary abounds with diametrical errors in syntax (e.g. "Mutar" instead of "Asur"; "Shabbos" instead of "Yom Tov"), as Rav Moshe Herschler points out in his informative introduction to Tosfos Rabeinu Peretz on Bava Metzia. Most of these are corrected in the recent editions of his commentary. The commentary on Eruvin was printed originally by Lev Same'ach Institute (Jerusalem, 1990) and again as part of a complete set of Tosfos Rabeinu Peretz on Shas, by MTM Publishers (Jerusalem, 1996), with annotations by Rav Chaim Dikman. When the RITVA cites from Tosfos, he usually is referring to this commentary.
(c) TOSFOS HA'ROSH - Rabeinu Asher ben Yechiel (d. 1328), originally from Germany, fled to Spain after his mentor, Rav Meir of Rotenberg, was taken captive by the authorities and passed away in jail. One of the great sages of Germany, he wrote commentaries and rulings on most of Shas which had a profound influence on the Code of Jewish Law.
(Many Halachic works were written by the Rishonim, culling Halachos from the entire Moed or the entire Talmud. We list here those volumes that concentrate specifically on the Halachos of Eruvin.)
(a) AVODAS HA'KODESH - by the Rashba, divided into two "Batim," the first one dealing with the laws of Eruvin, the second dealing with the laws of Yom Tov and Muktzah. Printed many times with many different commentaries, among them Mahaduras Kesav Yad (Yerushalayim 1984, with excellent indexes) and with an excellent Halachic anthology called Avodas Avodah, by Harav Chaim Tzimbelist (in four volumes, Tel Aviv 1973-90).
(1) ACHARONIM ON ERUVIN
(a) TORAS CHAIM - Rav Avraham Shor, an early Acharon, wrote a limited number of Chidushim on Shas, including some on Eruvin, which are often cited and referred to by the later Acharonim.
(b) KEREN ORAH - deep and penetrating Chidushim by Rav Yitzchak of Karlin (brother of the Mishkenos Yakov).
(c) GA'ON YAKOV - by Rav Yakov Kahane, a Talmid of the Vilna Ga'on who wrote deep Chidushim on the entire Masechta. His style and unusual depth make his work very difficult to learn, although the new annotated edition (Yerushalayim 1997, Mechon Tosfos Yomtov) makes it more approachable.
(d) SEFAS EMES - short and beautiful insights by Rav Yehudah Aryeh Leib of Ger, second Gerer Rebbe and grandson of the Chidushei ha'Rim, the first Gerer Rebbe
(e) GUR ARYEH - by the Maharal of Prague. Similar to his other works in style, includes deep analytical explanations of the Gemara as well as some comments on Agada. This work is printed at the end of the Me'oros Shas and in the Asifas Zekeinim, vol. 1 (see below).
(e) MENACHEM MESHIV - short comments pertaining to the literal meaning of the Gemara and Rashi, including many important Girsa corrections in Rashi, meant for those learning the Maseches quickly -- on Berachos and Seder Mo'ed.
(f) PIRYO B'ITO - by Rav Yisrael Yakov ha'Levi Kelner-Keller. A line-by-line explanation and commentary on the words of Rashi in Maseches Eruvin. Included are handy charts and sketches. (At the end of the Sefer is a collection of the author's Derashos and Chidushim, called "Ohala d'Marganisa," dedicated in memory of his wife and six children who were murdered by the Germans, Yemach Shemam v'Zichram, in Aushwitz.)
(2) ANTHOLOGIES ON ERUVIN
(a) GILYONEI HA'SHAS - by Rav Yosef Engel, author of "Asvan d'Oraisa." Mainly references to, and quotes from, the writings of the Rishonim in their responsa and other early works, with additional insights by the author.
(b) MESILAS HA'BARZEL - by Rav Nisan Shabsai Hailper, lists sources in the Rishonim and Acharonim that deal with the various Sugyos in the Gemara.
(c) OR HA'YASHAR - by Rav Shmuel Hilman, an excellent anthology on all of Torah, Navi, Mishnah and every Daf of Gemara.
(d) ASIFAS ZEKENIM (two volumes) - a collection of rare works on the Maseches, including the Maharal's Gur Aryeh and many others.
(e) YAD BINYAMIN - by Rav Binyamin Elyashiv, son of Hagaon Rav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv, Shlita. An invaluable work on the Maseches which fills an important niche, anthologizing important comments of the Rishonim and Acharonim, Sugya by Sugya. Includes helpful explanatory notes on Gemara, Rashi, and Tosfos when very difficult to understand, and helpful sketches.
(a) BI'UR HALACHAH and MISHNAH BERURAH, by the Chafetz Chayim, should not be overlooked. Although vol. 4 of the Mishnah Berurah is usually the least used, be sure to have one handy when learning Eruvin. The Chafetz Chayim provides penetrating insights into the hard Sugyos of the Maseches, as well as providing a compendium of the rulings of the Rishonim and the Acharonim on the Maseches.
(b) CHAZON ISH - His deeply thought out comments on Eruvin had an important impact on the present day Halachic practice.
(c) NESIVOS SHABBOS - an excellent, comprehensive and well-indexed work on the laws of Hotza'ah and Eruvin, by Harav Yakov Yeshaya Blau (Shlita, of Sanhedria, Yerushalayim, known for his well-received works on Choshen Mishpat), printed by Mechon l'Hora'ah of Monsey, 5749.
(d) KOL BO AL HILCHOS RESHUYOS V'ERUVIN - by the prolific Rav Yekusiel Zev Gross (Shlita), of Brooklyn NY.
(d) DINEI ERUVIN - a contemporary work on the laws of Eruvin by Rav Elimelech Lange.
(e) THE CONTEMPORARY ERUV - by Rav Yosef Gavriel Bechhofer, presently of Chicago, Illinois (Feldheim Publishers, 1998). An excellent treatise in English addressing the applications of the laws of Eruvin to modern metropolitan areas and the issues involved with modern Eruvin.
(f) THE ERUV MANUAL - by Dr. Bert Miller. Dr. Miller, a mathematician, not a rabbi, built the Baltimore, MD Eruv with Rabbi Moshe Heinemann. This work explains relevant Halachic concepts and presents solutions to many urban Eruv construction problems. If you are considering erecting an Eruv around your neighborhood, get the book which was used to build about 200 Eruvin in North America! In it, you will find practical advice ranging from the proper configuration of nails in your Eruv-posts to where one can purchase Eruv insurance and what wording is crucial in your agreement with the city or township. (Includes a diagram of a Tel ha'Mislaket, and the inexpensive tool Dr. Miller invented to measure the steepness of a slope.) To order the manual contact Dr. Miller at 410-358-6068 or firstname.lastname@example.org
(4) STUDY TOOLS
(a) PERUSH CHAI - By now a classic work on Eruvin, Rav Chaim Porush's work combines artistic talent with mastery of the text and its commentaries, with very few mistakes.
Sketches and pictures pertinent to the Maseches have also been printed in the back of other works, such as the new Mechon ha'Tur ha'Shalem printing of the TUR, the new MISHNAH BERURAH, the new ARTSCROLL SHAS, SHI'UREI HA'YOM, CHAVRUSA, YAD BINYAMIN, and PIRYO B'ITO.
(b) Do not forget to refer to the many valuable charts, graphics, and review summaries that KOLLEL IYUN HADAF provides for all the hard Sugyos, in Insights to the Daf, Charts for learning the Daf, Background to the Daf, and Review Questions and Answers to the Daf. The Kollel is looking forward to hearing from you -- l'Hitra'ot!
b'Hatzlachah in Maseches Eruvin!