[27a - 46 lines; 27b - 57 lines]
1)[line 1]לחוץLA'CHUTZ- to make a partition between himself and the graves in such a way that he does not become Tamei
2)[line 5]כל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמאKOL MITZVAS ASEH SHEHA'ZMAN GERAMA
Mitzvos which must be performed at a specific time of the day are called Mitzvos Aseh sheha'Zeman Geraman. Some examples are Sukah, Lulav, Shofar and Tzitzis. Women are exempt from these Mitzvos, with the exception of Kidush on Friday night, Matzah on Pesach night, the Korban Pesach, Hakhel and Simchah on Pesach, Shavuos and Sukos. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avodah Zarah 12:3)
(a)The Mitzvah of Simchah (Devarim 27:7) that applies on the three festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos requires a person to eat from sacrifices every day of the holiday. If no other sacrifice is available, the person brings a special Korban, known as Shalmei Simchah, for the purpose of fulfilling this Mitzvah. Women are also obligated in this Mitzvah (RAMBAM Hilchos Chagigah 1:1), in the sense that a woman's husband or father, and a widow's neighbor or supporter, must give her Shalmei Simchah to eat in order to make her joyous (Kidushin 34b, Ba'al ha'Me'or Kidushin 6a, Ra'avad and Kesef Mishneh ibid.; see, however, Me'iri Rosh Hashanah 6a and Lechem Mishneh Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 14:14, who contend that according to the Rambam the obligation of bringing Shalmei Simchah is indeed incumbent upon women).
(b)Besides offering extra Korbanos, the Mitzvah of Simchah also requires that all of the Jews be happy on the holidays. Buying food and clothing that cause one to be happy, each person according to his taste, fulfills this Mitzvah. One must also remember to support the poor and downtrodden on Yom Tov, for if one spends one's time eating and drinking without helping the poor, it is not considered a Simchah Shel Mitzvah; rather, it is Simchas Kreiso (a feast for one's stomach). (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 6:17-18)
All of the Jewish people are obligated in the Mitzvah of Hakhel once every seven years, as it states in Devarim 31:10-13, "At the end of every seven years, in the Shemitah year, during the festival of Sukos, when all of Yisrael comes to appear before HaSh-m in the place which He shall choose, you shall read this Torah before all of Yisrael. Gather the people together, men, women and children... that they may hear, and learn, and fear HaSh-m, your G-d, and observe all the words of this Torah." This takes place in the Beis ha'Mikdash on the second day of Sukos in the year following the Shemitah year. During Hakhel, the king reads from the Torah portions of Devarim, as specified in the Mishnah (Sotah 41a). Even though this is a Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zeman Gerama, women are obligated, for the verse specifically includes them in the Mitzvah.
5)[line 17]הזבHA'ZAV (MIDRAS, MASA, and HESET of a ZAV)
(a)A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b)A woman who has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah becomes a Zavah Gedolah, and is also an Av ha'Tum'ah.
(c)A Zav and a Zavah, like a Nidah and a Yoledes, can cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav/ha'Zavah (or the Tachton of a Zav or Zavah). An object under a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot become Midras.
(d)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves, along with the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time, get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.
(e)Utensils or clothes which lie above the Zav or Zavah also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether they touch them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav or Zavah.
(f)A Zav or Zavah also cause Tum'ah through Heset, when they move (or outweigh on a balance scale) a person or object that is Tahor. In all other types of Tum'ah besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves a person or object that is Tahor does not Metamei the person or object. Only Zav, etc. can Metamei people or objects in this way.
6)[line 19]משכב ומושבMISHKAV U'MOSHAV
See above, #5:c-d.
(a)A Zav and a Zavah, like a Nidah and a Yoledes, can cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav/ha'Zavah (or the Tachton of a Zav or Zavah). An object under a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it is made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot become Midras.
(b)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves, along with the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time, get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.
(c)Merkav ha'Zav/ha'Zavah is a form of Mishkav that does not cause the clothing worn by the person who touches it (or the object he is touching at the time) to become Tamei. Only if a person carries a Merkav do his clothes become Tamei (Vayikra 15:9-10).
(d)The Rishonim disagree as to what item the Torah calls a Merkav. Some say that it is the upward projecting handle in front of a saddle, which is grasped when riding (RASHI to Vayikra ibid. and here). Others say that it is anything that a rider straddles, as opposed to sitting upon with legs together, like a chair. (See Insights.)
8)[line 21]גבא דאוכפאGABA D'UKAFA- the upper part of the saddle (see next entry)
9)[line 23]התפוסHA'TAFUS- (O.F. arcon) a saddle horn (a handle which projects upward from the front of the saddle, which is grasped when riding (RASHI) or when mounting (RABEINU CHANANEL))
10)[line 28]כמיהין ופטריותKEMEIHIN U'PITRIYOS- types of boletes, such as mushrooms, morels, and truffles
11)[line 39]פיראPEIRA- an object that has been produced
12)[line 41]צירTZIR- fish brine which contains salt water
13)[line 42]קרבי דגיםKIRVEI DAGIM- the intestines of fish
14)[line 44]שומנא דפיראSHUMNA D'FEIRA- that the fat of an object that has been produced
15)[line 3]שנתן דמי מים ומלח בהבלעהSHE'NASAN DEMEI MAYIM VA'MELACH B'HAVLA'AH- (lit. he assimilated the money for the water and the salt) he paid for the water and salt by paying extra for the oil and receiving them for free
16)[line 6]גיזתהGIZASAH- its shearing of wool
17)[line 7]קנקנוKANKANO- its jug
18)[line 8]תמדTEMED- fermented grape pits steeped in water, which is used as an inferior wine
19)[line 10]מובילנא מאניה אבתריה לבי מסותאMOVILNA MANEI A'BASREI L'VEI MASUSA- I will carry his clothes after him to the bathhouse (like a servant)
20)[line 19]היינו נטירותיהHAINU NETIRUSEI- this is with what it is protected, i.e. stored
21)[line 20]קיוהא בעלמאKIYUHA B'ALMA HU- it has merely absorbed the acidity of the fermented grape pits; [(O.F. aigrum) acidity]
22)[line 23]דבילה קעיליתDEVEILAH KE'ILIS- preserved figs from Ke'ilah, a town in the lowland district of Judea, which are intoxicating
23)[line 42]רבויי ומיעוטי/כללי ופרטיRIBUYEI U'MI'UTEI/ KLALEI U'FRATEI
(a)Rebbi Yehudah ben Gadish and Rebbi Eliezer interpret the verses of the Torah on the basis of Ribuyim (inclusions, i.e. qualifications that enlarge the scope of the law) and Mi'utim (exclusions). Other Tana'im interpret the verses of the Torah on the basis of Klalim (generalizations) and Pratim (specifications).
(b)According to the approach that learns Ribuyei u'Mi'utei, when a Ribuy is followed by a Mi'ut, which is followed in turn by another Ribuy, then everything is included except for something that is totally dissimilar to the Mi'ut. According to the approach that learns Klalei u'Fratei, when a Klal is followed by a Prat, which is followed in turn by another Klal, then everything is included that is similar to the Prat. However, what is not similar to the Prat in all ways is not included. (This means that the verse will include less instances than the first opinion assumed.)
24)[line 49]פרי מפריPRI MI'PRI- an object that has been produced from something that has been produced
25)[line 51]ולד ולדות הארץVLAD VELADOS HA'ARETZ- an object that has grown from the growth of the earth
26)[last line]ממיא איברוMI'MAYA IVRU- were created from the sea