[17a - 52 lines; 17b - 46 lines]

1)[line 5]אורייתא, נביאי, וכתיבי דאמר רב הכי!ORAISA NEVI'EI, U'CHESUVEI D'AMAR RAV HACHI!- I swear by the Torah, by the Prophets, and by the Kesuvim (Holy Writings) that Rav said it!

2)[line 13]שבת גורמתSHABBOS GOREMES- the situation that exists when Shabbos begins dictates the Halachah for the duration of Shabbos. As a result: (a) when three people enclose an area larger than a Beis Se'asayim and one of them dies on Shabbos, it is permissible to carry in the additional area (i.e. the area more than a Beis Se'asayim) for the entire Shabbos even according to Rebbi Yehudah, even though only two people remain; (b) when two people enclose an area greater than a Beis Se'asayim, it is prohibited to carry in the entire area according to Rebbi Yehudah, even if more people join them on Shabbos.

3)[line 14]דיורין גורמיןDIYURIN GORMIN- the number of people presently dwelling in the enclosure dictates the Halachah. As a result: (a) when three people enclose an area larger than a Beis Se'asayim and one of them dies on Shabbos, it is prohibited to carry in the entire area according to Rebbi Yehudah; (b) when two people enclose an area greater than a Beis Se'asayim and they are joined by more people on Shabbos, it is then permissible to carry in the additional area (i.e. the area more than a Beis Se'asayim) according to Rebbi Yehudah.

4)[line 14]תסתייםTISTAYEM- conclude

5a)[line 37]מחנהMACHANEH- a camp of soldiers on their way to battle

b)[line 37]מ''מM"M- mi'Kol Makom (from anywhere)

6)[line 38]דמאיDEMAI

(a)Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" - "What is this?").

(b)Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").

7)[line 45]שיהו מרעין בחורשיןSHE'YEHU MAR'IN B'CHORASHIN- that people should be permitted to graze their animals in forests that belong to others. This applies to small animals such as sheep and goats, in forests where most of the trees have thick branches (RAMBAM Hilchos Nizkei Mamon 5:3)

8a)[line 46]היזמיHIZMEI- prickly shrubs or trees

b)[line 46]היגיHEIGEI- prickly bushes

9)[last line]מת מצוה קונה מקומוMES MITZVAH KONEH MEKOMO

(a)When a dead Jew is found unattended and an attempt to determine who his relatives are brings about no response, the dead body is called a Mes Mitzvah. The person who found the body is obligated to bury it. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 3:8)

(b)The body must be buried where it is found; "Mes Mitzvah Koneh Mekomo" - it "acquires the place where it rests." Even if it is found in the middle of a field that belongs to someone else, it is buried there. (However, if the body is found within 2000 Amos of a Jewish community, it must be buried in the community cemetery (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Mes 8:7).)

17b----------------------------------------17b

10)[line 4]סרטיאSERATYA- a wide street

11)[line 5]מפניהוMEFANEIHU- he removes it

12a)[line 6]שדה בורSEDEH VUR- an uncultivated filed

b)[line 6]שדה נירSEDEH NIR- a plowed field

13)[line 10]מוטל על המיצרMUTAL AL HA'MEITZAR- lying on the path that is between two fields

14)[line 16]מלח סדומיתMELACH SEDOMIS- salt from the Dead Sea

15)[line 17]משתכחא כקורטא בכוראMISHTAKCHA K'KORTA B'CHURA- it is found in the proportion of one grain in a Kor (i.e., it is very rare)

16)[line 18]כייל מילחאKAYIL MILCHA- if he measured salt

17)[line 21]אכסניאACHSANYA- (a) a Jewish army (RASHI here and in Berachos 47a); (b) a Jewish guest (TOSFOS Berachos ibid. DH u'Ma'achilin, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser 10:11); (c) a non-Jewish army (TOSFOS Berachos ibid. and here DH v'Es)

18)[line 26]עירובי תחומיןERUVEI TECHUMIN

(a)A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.

(b)This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.

19)[line 32]לאו שניתן לאזהרת מיתת בית דיןLAV SHE'NITAN L'AZHARAS MISAS BEIS DIN

(a)A person is punished with 39 lashes (Malkus) when he transgresses negative commandments of the Torah, with certain exceptions.

(b)One category of negative commandments for which one is not given Malkus is "Lav she'Nitan l'Azharas Misas Beis Din" - "a negative commandment that was given as a warning for capital punishment." The Torah only prescribes capital punishment after writing a specific prohibition not to do a certain act. In such cases, the negative commandment is only written as a prerequisite for administering capital punishment, and not to give the offender Malkus. Therefore, when a person does a capital offense and is warned that he will incur Malkus, he is neither executed nor given Malkus.

(c)Rebbi Yishmael rules that one is liable to Malkus if he transgresses a Lav she'Nitan l'Azharas Misas Beis Din, if the witnesses warned him that he will receive Malkus for his sin.

PEREK #2 OSIN PASIN

20)[line 38]עושין פסין לביראותOSIN PASIN L'BEIRA'OS (PASEI BEIRA'OS)

(a)Chazal instituted various lenient rulings in order to help Jews keep the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the holidays of Pesach, Shavuos and Sukos). One of these is called Pasei Bira'os (planks for the springs).

(b)If a well is four by four Tefachim wide and ten Tefachim deep, it is considered to be a Reshus ha'Yachid. If it is located in the middle of Reshus ha'Rabim, one may not draw water from the well (a Reshus ha'Yachid) and set the bucket down at the edge of the pit (a Reshus ha'Rabim) for an animal to drink. A person may only drink from the well by climbing into the well, and drinking its water while in the well.

(c)By placing four corner pieces around the well (each made of two planks one Amah wide and ten Tefachim tall, set perpendicular to each other), the area enclosed by the planks is considered to be a four-walled Reshus ha'Yachid and the open space between them is considered a "doorway" in a full wall. It is therefore permitted for a person to set a bucket of water drawn from the well at a point enclosed by the planks, and bring his animal (or most of it) within that area to drink from the water.

(d)The corner pieces were placed 10 Amos apart according to Rebbi Meir and 13 1/3 Amos apart according to Rebbi Yehudah. To enclose an area larger than 10 or 13 1/3 Amos, extra planks must be added between the corner pieces to shorten the gaps between them.

21)[line 38]דיומדיןDIYOMDIN- v-shaped corner pieces, each made of two planks (Deyo Amudin) one Amah wide and ten Tefachim tall, that are set perpendicular to each other

22)[line 39]נראין כשמונהNIR'IN K'SHEMONAH- that appear as eight planks, two in each corner

23)[line 43]שתי רבקותSHTEI REVAKOS- two teams of threshing cattle

24)[line 45]אחת נכנסת ואחת יוצאתACHAS NICHNESES V'ACHAS YOTZES- one group entering between the planks towards the spring and one group exiting

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