(a)(Rabah bar Shila): There was a Magreifah (Rashi - shovel; Tosfos - instrument) in the Mikdash. It had 10 holes. Through each could come 10 kinds of song, making 100 in all.
(b)(Beraisa): It was an Amah long and an Amah tall. It had 10 holes on its handle. Through each could come 100 kinds of song, making 1000 in all.
(c)(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The way to remember the opinions is that Tana'ic (Agadic) teachings are sometimes exaggerated.
(d)(Mishnah - R. Meir): The flute players were slaves of Kohanim...
(e)Suggestion: R. Meir says that they were slaves of Kohanim, because he holds that the main Mitzvah (incumbent on Leviyim) of Shirah is vocal. The instruments merely accompany the voices. R. Chanina says that they were Leviyim, because he holds that Shirah is primarily instrumental.
(f)Rejection: This does not explain R. Yosi! (He says that they were from families of good lineage.)
1.If Shirah is (primarily) vocal, even slaves should suffice. If it is instrumental, Leviyim should be required!
(g)Rather, all agree that Shirah is vocal. They argue about whether or not we are Ma'alim (establish someone to be a Levi of proper lineage) because he played on the Duchan (the platform on which Leviyim sing):
1.R. Meir says that they were slaves of Kohanim. He holds that we are not Ma'alim from the Duchan, not regarding lineage (to marry one who played on the Duchan without checking for forbidden lineages such as Mamzerus), nor (to give him) Ma'aser;
2.R. Chanina says that they were Leviyim (of good lineage). He holds that we are Ma'alim for lineage and Ma'aser;
3.R. Yosi says that they had good lineage. He holds that (Rosh - we decree to require good lineage, lest people assume that) we are Ma'alim from the Duchan regarding lineage, but not for Ma'aser.
2)WHEN SHIRAH IS SUNG
(a)(Beraisa - R. Meir): Shir is Me'akev the Korban (Tosfos - i.e. the Nesachim; Rosh - when the Nesachim are brought with the Korban, Shir is Me'akev the Korban).
(b)Question: What is R. Meir's reason?
(c)Answer: "Ha'Leviyim... u'Lechaper Al Bnei Yisrael" teaches that just like Kaparah is Me'akev (if the Korban was not Mechaper, another must be brought), also (Avodas ha'Leviyim, i.e.) Shirah.
(d)Chachamim use this to teach R. Elazar's law;
1.(R. Elazar): Just like Kaparah must be during the day, also Shirah.
(e)Question (Rav Yehudah): What is the source that Shirah is required?
(f)Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): "V'Sheres b'Shem Hash-m Elokav" - Shirah is Sherus (Avodah) with Hash-m's name.
1.Suggestion: Perhaps it refers to Birkas Kohanim!
2.Rejection: "Lesharso ul'Varech bi'Shemo" teaches that Sherus is not Birkas Kohanim.
(g)Answer #2 (Rav Masnah): "Tachas Asher Lo Avadeta Es Hash-m Elokecha b'Simchah uv'Tuv Levav" teaches that Shirah is Avodah done amidst joy.
1.Suggestion: Perhaps it is learning Torah, for it says "Pekudei Hash-m Yesharim Mesamchei Lev"!
2.Rejection: Torah is called "Mesamchei Lev," but it is not called "Tov" (in association with the heart, or with Simchah).
3.Suggestion: Perhaps it is Bikurim, about which it says "v'Samachta b'Chol ha'Tov"!
4.Rejection: It says "Tov," but it does not say "Tov Levav."
5.Question (Rav Masnah): What is the source that Shirah must accompany Bikurim?
6.Answer (Rav Masnah): We learn from a Gezeirah Shavah "Tov-Tov."
7.Question: R. Shmuel bar Nachmani taught that Shirah is said only over wine, for it says "va'Tomer Lahem ha'Gefen... Tiroshi ha'Mesame'ach Elokim va'Anashim."
i.Question: We know that wine gladdens man. How does it gladden Hash-m?
ii.Answer: Shirah (of the Leviyim gladdens Hash-m, and it) is said only over wine (Nesachim).
8.Answer: Wine may be brought for Bikurim:
9.(Beraisa - R. Yosi): We bring fruit for Bikurim, but not juice;
10.Question: What is the source that if one brought grapes and pressed them, the juice may be brought (Tosfos - l'Chatchilah)?
11.Answer: "Tavi" (is extra to include this).
(h)Answer #3 (Chizkiyah): "U'Chenanyahu Sar ha'Leviyim b'Masa Yasor" - we read this "Yashir."
(i)Answer #4 (Bilvati): "La'avod Avodas Avodah" - Shirah is the Avodah that requires another Avodah. (Rashi - it is done only with Nesachim; R. Gershom - Leviyim sing, and others play instruments to accompany them.)
(j)Answer #5 (R. Yitzchak): "Se'u Zimrah u'Senu Sof Kinor Na'im Im Navel."
(k)Answer #6 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): "Yis'u Kolam Yaronu bi'Ge'on Hash-m Tzahalu Mayim."
(l)Answer #7 (Beraisa): "Veli'Vnei Kehas Lo Nasan Ki Avodas ha'Kodesh Aleihem ba'Kasef Yisa'u."
1.Question: Since it says that they serve with their shoulders, it need not say "Yisa'u" (they will carry)!
2.Answer: "Yisa'u" denotes Shirah - "Se'u Zimrah u'Senu Sof... "
(m)Answer #8 (Chananyah, nephew of R. Yehoshua): "Moshe Yedaber veha'Elokim Ya'anenu v'Kol" refers to matters of his voice. (Hash-m told Moshe to sing Shirah, for he was a Levi.)
(n)Answer #9 (Rav Ashi): It says "va'Yehi ch'Echad la'Mechatzrim vela'Meshorerim l'Hashmi'a Kol Echad."
3)DOING ANOTHER'S AVODAH
(a)Answer #10 (R. Yonason): It says "v'Lo Yamusu Gam Hem Gam Atem." (If a Kohen or Levi performed the other's Avodah, he is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim);
1.Just like you (Kohanim) engage in Avodas Mizbe'ach, also Leviyim.
(b)Support (Beraisa): "V'Lo Yamusu Gam Hem Gam Atem" - if you do their Avodah, or vice-versa, the punishment is Misah. (Some families of Leviyim lock the gates, and the others sing);
1.If a Levi did the wrong Avodas Levi, he transgresses a Lav, but he is not Chayav Misah.
(c)(Abaye): The Halachah is, if a singer locked gates (Rambam - or vice-versa), he is Chayav Misah - "veha'Chonim Lifnei ha'Mishkan Kedmah... veha'Zar ha'Karev Yumas";
1.Question: To what kind of Zar does it refer?
i.It cannot mean a Yisrael. Another verse teaches that!
2.Answer: Rather, it refers to someone else who is foreign to Avodas Leviyim (i.e. a Kohen).
(d)Question (Beraisa): If a singer locked gates, or a gatekeeper sang, he transgresses a Lav, but he is not Chayav Misah.
(e)Answer: Tana'im argue about this;
1.(Beraisa): A case occurred in which R. Yehoshua bar Chananyah went to help lock gates.
2.R. Yochanan ben Gudgoda: Refrain! You are a singer, and not a gatekeeper!
3.Suggestion: R. Yochanan ben Gudgoda holds that a singer who locks gates (by himself) is Chayav Misah, therefore Chachamim decreed that he may not help. R. Yehoshua holds that this is only a Lav, therefore there is no decree against helping.
(f)Rejection: No. All agree that it is only a Lav. They argue about whether or not there was a decree not to help.
4)SHIRAH FOR NIDVAS TZIBUR
(a)Question (R. Avin): Does a voluntary Olas Tzibur require Shirah?
1.The Torah requires Shirah with "Oloseichem," whether Chovah (obligatory) or Nedavah;
2.Or, perhaps it refers to Olos of all Yisrael (but not Olos Nedavah, which come from money of individuals)!
(b)Answer #1: "Va'Yomer Chizkiyahu... uv'Es Hechel ha'Olah Hechel Shir Hash-m veha'Chatzotzeros."
1.Question: For which Korban was the Shirah?
2.Suggestion: It was for Olas Chovah.
3.Rejection: They would not have needed to ask Chizkiyah about this!
4.Answer: It was for Olas Nedavah. (This completes Answer #1. The coming defenses of the suggestion (2) are also rejections of Answer #1.)
5.Defense #1 (of suggestion - Rav Yosef): It was for an Olas Chovah, i.e. of Rosh Chodesh. They needed to ask whether the day was indeed Mekudash to be Rosh Chodesh.
6.Rejection (Abaye): It says "uv'Yom Shishah Asar la'Chodesh"!
7.Defense #2 (Rami brei d'Rav Yeva): It was for the Olah that accompanies the Omer. They were unsure whether or not this is the 16th of the month, for they were unsure which day was Mekudash to be Rosh Chodesh.
8.Rejection (Rav Avya): Surely, they already knew this. This is after they brought Korban Pesach and ate Matzah!
9.Defense #3 (Rav Ashi): It was for Olas Chovah. Even though they knew that it requires Shirah, it is proper to ask, just like a Shali'ach Tzibur asks permission (to lead the congregation in prayer).
(c)Answer #2 (Beraisa - R. Yosi): Hash-m causes good things to happen on meritorious days, and bad things to happen on unworthy days;
1.The first Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed on Tish'ah b'Av. It was the day after Shabbos, it was the year after Shemitah, it was the Mishmar (division of Kohanim) of Yehoyariv; Kohanim and Leviyim were standing on the Duchan and singing Shirah, "va'Yashev Aleihem Es Avonam uv'Ra'asam Yatzmisem";
i.Before they said the next verse "Yatzmisem Hash-m Elokeinu," the enemy conquered them.
2.The same applied at the second Churban.
3.Question: For which Korban was the Shirah?
i.It cannot be for Olas Chovah. They ceased to offer the Tamid three weeks earlier!
4.Answer: Rather, it was for Olas Nedavah.
5.Objection: The Tamid ceased because they ran out of animals. If they had animals for Nedavah, they would have offered them for the Tamid instead!
6.Answer: The Olas Nedavah was a bull. The Tamid must be a lamb.
(d)Objection (Rava): We cannot say that the Shirah was for the Korban. (Tosfos - if so, it would require the Shir for that day.) The Shir for Yom Rishon is "la'Shem ha'Aretz u'Melo'ah," but they said "va'Yashev Aleihem Es Avonam... ," from the Shir for Yom Revi'i!
1.Rather, Hash-m caused them to sing this (for it was appropriate for the Churban. We need not say that Korbanos Nedavah require Shirah.)
(e)Question: The Beraisa says that they were standing on the Duchan! (I.e. they needed to sing for an obligatory Korban.)
(f)Answer: It is like Reish Lakish, who says that they may sing without a Korban.
(g)Question: If so, they may sing for Olas Nedavah! (It is no worse than no Korban.)
(h)Answer: No, this can lead to disaster! (Rashi - people may think that just like Shirah for Nedavah is optional, also for Olas Chovah of the Tzibur. R. Gershom - people may think that one may not offer Nedavos without Shirah, and will improperly refrain from offering.)
(i)Question: What was the conclusion?
(j)Answer: Rav Mari brei d'Rav Kahana expounded "(we play trumpets) Al Oloseichem v'Al Zivchei Shalmeichem" - just like Olah is Kodshei Kodashim, also the Shelamim in this verse (i.e. it is Shalmei Tzibur);
1.Just like the Shelamim has a fixed time (Shavu'os), also the Olah.