hebrew
1)

What did Hashem mean when he told Kayin that if he makes good, "Se'es"?

1.

Targum Onkelus and Rashi: He meant that if he makes good 1 (does Teshuvah), he will be forgiven.

2.

Ramban #1 (citing the Ibn Ezra): Since Kayin's "face fell" (from shame [Pasuk 5]), if he makes good, it will be uplifted.

3.

Ramban #2: If he does Teshuvah, he will merit a greater portion', 2 seeing as he is the Bechor. 3


1

Ohr Yechezkel Midos p.21: "To make good" is to check his actions and strive to cleanse them of every blemish.

2

See Parshas Vayechi (Bereishis 49:3).

3

The Seforno explains it in a similar fashion.

2)

What is the meaning of the next phrase ("v'Im Lo Seitiv, la'Pesach Chatas Roveitz")?

1.

Targum Onkelus and Rashi: "But if you don't do Teshuvah in this world, then your sin will be kept for the Day of Judgment (by the grave - Rashi).

2.

Ramban: If you do not ... not only will you bring about evil with regard to your brother, but your sin will crouch at your door to trip you up in all your endeavors.

3.

Rashbam: If you do good to commit only a few sins, you will be capable of bearing their weight; but if you don't - and commit many sins, then you will not be able to bear their weight.

4.

Targum Yonasan: If you don't do Teshuvah, the Yeitzer Ha'Ra is waiting at the entrance of your heart (to make you sin again). 1


1

Based on the principle 'One sin leads to another'. The Seforno gives a similar explanation.

3)

And what does Hashem mean when He finally said "He desires you but you can rule over him"?

1.

Rashi and Targum Yonasan: The Yeitzer ha'Ra's ambition is to make you sin, but if you want you are able to defeat it 1 (Targum Yonasan - to merit or to sin).

2.

Seforno: You have the power to muster the 'Tzelem Elokim and overpower him 2 .


1

Chovos ha'Levavos 5:5: When you stand up against the Yetzer ha'Ra, it will accept your authority, and it cannot stand up against you.

2

As Chazal have said 'Every day, a person's Yeitzer ha'Ra attacks him, and if not for Divine Assistance, he would not be able to overcome him' (Succah 52b).

4)

What is "sin crouches at the opening"?

1.

Kol Eliyahu, Divrei Eliyahu: When there is a Safek 1 what to do, it is easy for the Yetzer ha'Ra to make a person agree to it 2 , unless he suppresses it forcefully. This is why David and Boaz swore to the Yetzer ha'Ra, to remove the Safek.

2.

Lev Eliyahu (Bereishis p.27): One must make a wall against the Yetzer ha'Ra without any crack. If there is a hole, the Yetzer ha'Ra enters your heart and does his will, and expels you and your Kelim.


1

Mishnas R. Aharon 1 p.211, citing the Gra: The opening is the beginning of a Safek to do unlike Hashem's will. One must be closed on every side.

2

Kol Eliyahu, Divrei Eliyahu: This is "vElecha Teshukaso" - it hopes that you will open for it. If you do not, "v'Atah Timshol Bo."

5)

רש"י: כתרגומו פרושו וכו': אם דעת רש"י כתרגום, למה הוא ממשיך לבאר את הפסוק?

1.

גור אריה: לדעת רש"י "לפתח" פרושו פתח הקבר, אבל לתרגום הכוונה שהחטא ממתין ליום הדין כאדם האורב לחברו, ואז יענש. והמשך הפסוק- "ואליך תשוקתו", הפרוש שהיצר משתוקק להכשיל את האדם כדי שה' יפרע ממנו. 1


1

עי' ברא"ם שבתחילת הפסוק רש"י כאונקלוס ובהמשך הוא חולק עליו כי לתרגום הפרוש שהחטא משתוקק להענישו ולרש"י מדובר על היצר, ובדעת הגור אריה, עי' במה שכתב הרב הרטמן בהגהותיו.

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