TREIFOS OF THE SPINAL CORD (cont.)
Question (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): Does 'until' include (the first area between the branches)?
Question (Rav Papa): If it does not include it, what is the law at the first branching?
Question (R. Yirmeyah): If it does include it, what is the law if the cord is cut in the branches at the first branching?
Answer (Beraisa): A cut at the branching is like a cut in the flesh (the animal is Kosher).
Suggestion: This refers to a cut at the first or second branching.
Rejection: No, it refers to a cut at the third branching.
(R. Yanai): The spinal cord of a bird extends until below the wings. (If the majority is cut, it is Tereifah);
(Reish Lakish): It extends until between the wings.
Ben Pazi was checking a bird. He checked until between the wings, and he was called to the Nasi's house. He went.
Ula: I don't know if he holds like Reish Lakish, that no more needs to be checked, or if he stopped in the middle out of respect for the Nasi.
A REMOVED LIVER
(Mishnah): If the liver was removed...
Inference: If anything remains, even less than k'Zayis (the volume of an olive), it is Kosher.
Contradiction (Mishnah): If k'Zayis of the liver remains, it is Kosher.
Answer (Rav Yosef): One Mishnah is like R. Chiya, and the other is like R. Shimon bar Rebbi.
Version #1: R. Chiya would throw out an animal if less than k'Zayis of the liver remained. R. Shimon bar Rebbi would eat it.
Version #2: R. Chiya would not eat liver. (He did not consider it to be such a vital organ). R. Shimon bar Rebbi would eat it. (Since it is a crucial organ, it is healthy to eat. Presumably, R. Shimon holds that if a tiny amount of the liver remains, it cannot heal, so it is Tereifah). (end of Version #2)
A way to remember the opinions is that rich people (i.e. the son of the Nasi) economize.
(R. Zeira): A k'Zayis of the liver must remain in the area of the gall bladder.
(Rav Ada bar Ahavah): A k'Zayis must remain in the place from which the liver is suspended.
(Rav Papa): We are concerned for both opinions. A k'Zayis must remain in each place.
Questions (R. Yirmeyah): If the k'Zayis is not all in one place, what is the law? If it is stretched out in a strip, what is the law?
Question (Rav Ashi): If it is like a thin sheet, what is the law?
These questions are unresolved.
Question (R. Zerika): If the liver is uprooted in several places, but still clings to the surrounding Chelev, what is the law?
Answer (R. Ami): Since the entire liver is intact, it is Kosher according to both opinions (R. Zeira and Rav Ada bar Ahavah above).
PROBLEMS IN THE LUNGS
(Mishnah): A punctured lung...
Version #1 (Rav, Shmuel and Rav Asi): If the outer membrane is punctured, it is Tereifah.
Version #2: If the inner membrane is punctured, it is Tereifah. (The text connotes that this is according to Rav, Shmuel and Rav Asi. However, the Maharam derives that Tosfos holds that Version #2 is only according to Shmuel (and perhaps Rav Asi).)
(Rav Yosef bar Minyomi): A Siman to remember this is a rose-colored garment that holds the lungs. (He holds like Version #2.).
If only the outer membrane is punctured, surely the lower one protects (so the animal is not Tereifah), like Rava taught;
(Rava): If the outer membrane of the lung was peeled off but the red inner membrane remains, it is Kosher.
Question: If only the inner membrane was punctured, does the outer one protect?
Answer: Rav Acha and Ravina argued. One said that it protects, and the other said that it does not.
The Halachah is, it protects, like Rav Yosef taught.
(Rav Yosef): If when one blows into the lungs it sounds as if air is escaping, he must check it;
If he knows from where the sound comes, he puts a feather, piece of straw or some spit there. If there really is a hole, it will move when he blows.
If he does not know from where the sound comes, he puts the lungs in a basin of lukewarm water and blows into the lungs.
One may not use hot water. This would constrict the hole.
One may not use cold water. This could cause the outer membrane to tear.
If he sees bubbles, there is a hole, so it is Tereifah;
If there are no bubbles, the noise was due to a tear in the inner membrane alone. It is Kosher.
(Rava): If the outer membrane of the lung was peeled off but the red inner membrane remains, it is Kosher. (end of Version #2)
(Rava): If part of the lung turned red, it is Kosher. If all of it turned red, it is Tereifah.
Objection (Ravina): You say that if only part turns red it is Kosher, because it can get better;
Also if the entire lung turns red, it can get better!
(Beraisa): If one wounds a Sheretz (except for the eight Sheratzim listed in the Torah) on Shabbos he is exempt unless blood comes out, even if the blood is recognizable in the skin. (This shows that redness does not indicate a puncture.)
Suggestion: Perhaps Rava learns from the eight Sheratzim.
(Beraisa): If one wounds one of the eight Sheratzim on Shabbos he is liable if the blood is recognizable in the skin, even if it did not come out.
Rejection: If so, even a redness in part of the lungs should be Tereifah!
(Ravina): Rather, it is the same whether part or all is red. (Rashi - it is Kosher. Tosfos - it is Tereifah. On 47b, we say that red is Kosher. We must say that this is when it whitens when inflated. Rosh - some distinguish different shades of red.)
(Rava): If a lung partially dried up, it is Tereifah.
Question: How much must it dry up?
Answer (Rav Papa): It is so dry that it can be crushed with a fingernail.
Suggestion: This is like R. Yosi ben ha'Meshulam.
(Beraisa): A dried ear is a blemish if it would not bleed when punctured;
R. Yosi ben ha'Meshulam says, it is a blemish if it can be crushed with a fingernail.
Rejection: No, it is even like Chachamim.
The ear is exposed to wind, therefore it will not heal. The lung can heal.
(Rava): If the lung has black or colored crusts, it is Kosher.
(Ameimar): If a punctured blister is found in the lung, we do not compare it to a fresh blister (to determine whether it was there from before the Shechitah).
(Rava): If a scab is found between two non-adjacent chambers of the lungs, it does not help to check. (Even if no puncture is found, the animal is Tereifah);
If it is between two adjacent chambers, it will heal, it is Kosher.