BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
in memory of Reb David ben Aharon Ha'Levi Rosenwald z"l
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[104a - 25 lines; 104b - 41 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos
 Rashi 104b DH bi'Shelama בשלמא:
The words "Chalas Chutz la'Aretz la'Aretz"חלת חוצה לארץ (לארץ)
should be "Chalas Chutz la'Aretz ba'Aretz" חלת חוצה לארץ בארץ (RASHASH)
1) [line 1] הנודר מן הבשר HA'NODER MIN HA'BASAR (NEDARIM)
(a) The Torah empowers a person to create a prohibition or obligation upon himself through the means of his speech, as the verse states, "If a man makes a "Neder" (vow) to Hashem, or swears a "Shevu'ah" (oath) to create a prohibition upon himself, he may not violate his word. As he spoke, he shall do" (Bamidbar 30:3). By pronouncing a Shevu'ah one can either prohibit an act that was formerly permitted, or make obligatory an act that was formerly voluntary. By pronouncing a Neder, in contrast, one can only prohibit and not obligate, with the exception of Nidrei Hekdesh (vows to consecrate a sacrifice) which can also obligate a person (to bring the sacrifice he vowed). (For a further discussion of the differences between Nedarim and Shevu'os, see Background to Shevuos 22:1; regarding Nidrei Hekdesh, see Background ibid. 22:5.)
(b) One who violates a Neder transgresses a Mitzvas Aseh (Bamidbar ibid., Devarim 23:24) and a Mitzvas Lo Sa'aseh (Bamidbar ibid.) and is punished with Malkus (lashes) (RAMBAM Hilchos Nedarim 1:4-5).
2) [line 6] כל מילי דמימליך עליה שליח KOL MILEI D'MIMLICH ALEI SHALI'ACH - any item for which a messenger returns to the person who sent him, to clarify if that item belongs to the general category of items for which he was sent
3) [line 8] דלועין DELU'IN - gourds
4) [line 12] קטנית KITNIS - legumes
5) [line 14] רבי היא, ונסיב לה אליבא דתנאי REBBI HI, V'NASIV LAH ALIBA D'TANA'I - it (the Mishnah) is the opinion of Rebbi, which he quoted according to the opinions of [two] Tana'im
6) [last line] חלת חוצה לארץ CHALAS CHUTZAH LA'ARETZ - "Chalah" separated from dough in Chutz la'Aretz
(a) With regard to the Mitzvah of Chalah, the verses state, "... b'Vo'achem El ha'Aretz... Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When you come into the land [where I bring you, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall separate a Terumah (tribute) to HaSh-m.] You shall separate the first of your dough for a Terumah; [as you do with the Terumah separated from the grain of the threshing floor, so, too, shall you present this [to the Kohanim.]" (Bamidbar 15:18-20).
(b) Whenever a person kneads a large amount of dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen before eating from the dough. This portion is called Chalah. (The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah only applies to dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of flour (about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters). Approximately half of that amount requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah.) A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24. If a person did not separate Chalah from the dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the baked products can be eaten. Before Chalah is separated, the dough is called "Tavul l'Chalah," and anyone who eats it b'Mezid (intentionally) is liable to the punishments of Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Makos 13a).
(c) Chalah has the Halachos of Terumah, and it must be eaten by Kohanim, their wives and children, while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).
(d) Since the verse states, "Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah," this teaches that Chalah must be separated only from dough, but not from flour. If it was separated from flour, it does not have the status of Chalah. All of the Halachos mentioned above apply to Chalah separated in Eretz Yisrael. Chalah separated in Chutz la'Aretz is mid'Rabanan and does not have these stringencies.
(e) The Gemara quotes the Mishnah in Chalah (4:8) that teaches that Chalah separated from dough in Chutz la'Aretz may be given to "any Kohen." RASHI (DH l'Chol) explains that this means that it may be given even to a Kohen who does not observe the Mitzvos of Hashem. TOSFOS (DH v'Nitenes) explains that when no other Kohanim are available, it may be given even to a Kohen who might eat it while he is Tamei.
7) [line 1] זר ZAR - (lit. a stranger) a non-Kohen
8) [line 10] אילפס רותח ILFAS ROSHE'ACH - a hot serving tray (heated by the hot food that was placed there)
9) [line 12] אילפס ראשון ILFAS RISHON - into a hot frying pan [that was placed upon the table]
10) [line 30] אגרא AGRA - the name of a Torah sage
11) [line 31] באפיקורן BA'AFIKOREN - without restraint, as the Gemara will immediately explain
12) [line 32] נטילת ידים NETILAS YADAYIM - cleansing of the hands (as opposed to ritual purification)
13) [line 33] קינוח הפה KINU'ACH HA'PEH - wiping of the mouth (by chewing food)
14) [line 39] אבל ביממא הא חזינא AVAL B'YEMAMA, HA CHAZINAH - but in the day, I am able to distinguish [between the cheese and the meat]
15) [last line] מדיח MEDI'ACH - he rinses [his mouth]