BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
in memory of Reb David ben Aharon Ha'Levi Rosenwald z"l
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
CHULIN 45 (10 Av) - Dedicated by Rabbi Dr. Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel, in memory of his father, Reb Yisrael Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel. Isi Turkel, as he was known, loved Torah and worked to support it literally with his last ounce of strength. He passed away on 10 Av 5740.
[45a - 36 lines; 45b - 39 lines]
1) [line 1] איתייקורי הוא דמתייקרו בי ISYAKUREI HU D'MISYAKRO BI - they are honored by having me as a guest
2) [line 2] ניקבה כנפה, מצטרפים לרובא NIKVAH K'NAFAH, MITZTARFIM L'RUBA - if the trachea was punctured like a sieve, the holes combine to compose a majority of the circumference
3) [line 3] ובגולגולת שיש בה נקב אחד ארוך UV'GULGOLES SHE'YESH BAH NEKEV ECHAD AROCH - and with a skull that has one long hole. (In the Mishnah in Ohalos 2:3, Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel disagree about the degree of damage or deficiency a body part must have in order for it not to be Metamei b'Ohel. With regard to a skull with a hole, Beis Shamai says that a skull with a hole is not Metamei b'Ohel when the hole is the size of the hole made by a surgeon's drill. Beis Hillel says that a skull is not Metamei b'Ohel when it has a hole that would cause a living person to die.)
4) [line 4] מצטרפין למלא מקדח MITZTARFIN L'MELO MAKDE'ACH - they combine to compose the size of a hole bored by a drill (which renders the skull incomplete so that it does not cause Tum'as Ohel)
5) [line 6] כיון דשיעוריה כאיסר KEIVAN D'SHI'UREI K'ISAR - since its minimum amount is the size of an Isar (a coin), [small holes should join to combine the size of an Isar (a coin) to make it Tereifah]
6) [line 7] אישתמיטתיה ISHTEMITSEI - it escaped him (he forgot it)
7) [line 12] ניטלה הימנה רצועה NITLAH HEIMENAH RETZU'AH - if a narrow strip of skin running down the length of the trachea was removed from it
8) [line 17] מקפלו ומניחו על פי הקנה MEKAPLO U'MENICHO AL PI HA'KANEH - if one folds the flap over the mouth of the trachea
9) [line 17] אם חופה את רוב הקנה, טריפהIM CHOFEH ES ROV HA'KANEH, TEREIFAH - if the flap covers a majority of the mouth of the trachea, the animal is a Tereifah (since the material that covered the holes is actually missing and the holes are close together, like the holes of a sieve)
10) [line 18] נפחתה כדלת NIFCHESAH K'DELES - if the trachea is deficient like a door; i.e., the trachea was partially cut out so that it forms a flap, like a door that swings open and shut
11) [line 18] כדי שיכנס איסר לרחבו KEDEI SHE'YIKANES ISAR L'ROCHBO - [if the hole (the part missing from the trachea) that is exposed when the flap is opened] is large enough for an Isar to enter widthwise into the hole
12) [line 19] חוליא אחת CHULYA ACHAS - when one ring (or, according to RASHI, three rings) on each end remains intact, it is not a Tereifah
13) [line 23] ידעין בבלאי לפרושי כי האי טעמא? YAD'IN BAVLA'EI LI'FERUSHEI KI HAI TAIMA? - Do the Babylonians (i.e., Rebbi Yonasan) know how to interpret the Mishnah using this logic? [I am impressed!]
14) [line 24] מטבעת הגדולה MITBA'AS HA'GEDOLAH - the great ring; i.e., the topmost of the rings of cartilage that surround the trachea
15) [line 24] כנפי ריאה התחתונה KANFEI REI'AH HA'TACHTONAH - the lobes of the lower lung; i.e., where the trachea reaches the lower lobes of the lung
16) [line 25] התחתונה שהיא עליונה HA'TACHTONAH SHE'HI ELYONAH - the lower lung that is actually the upper lung; i.e., when the Beraisa speaks of "lower" it refers to what is actually the upper part of the lung, when viewed from its hind legs. This is the upper part of the lung when one removes the lung and allows it to dangle from the severed trachea.
17) [line 25] כל שפושטת צוארה ורועה KOL SHE'POSHETES TZAVARAH V'RO'AH - [the area valid for Shechitah is the part of the animal's neck which is exposed] when it stretches out its neck and grazes
18) [line 25] ובלבד שלא תאנס U'VILVAD SHE'LO TE'ANES - as long as the animal is not forced [and has her neck stretched further than she extends it on her own]
19) [line 27] נפק מילתא מבינייהו NAFAK MILSA MI'BEINAIHU - this matter went out from between them; i.e., they agreed on the matter
20) [line 28] ניקב הקנה למטה מן החזה, נידון כריאה NIKEV HA'KANEH L'MATAH MIN HE'CHAZEH, NIDON K'REI'AH - if the trachea was punctured below the point where the breast starts, it is judged like a puncture of the lung [and is a Tereifah]
21) [line 28] איזהו חזה EIZEHU CHAZEH - what is the breast with regard to a Shelamim? (KORBAN SHELAMIM)
(a) A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b) Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(c) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (right hind thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban ("Eimurim,") were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The Eimurim consist of: 1. the layer of fat covering the stomachs; 2. all other fat attached to the stomachs; 3. the two kidneys; 4. the fat on the kidneys; 5. The Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).
(d) The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for two days and the intervening night.
22) [line 28] זה הרואה את הקרקע ZEH HA'RO'EH ES HA'KARKA - this is the part of the animal that faces the ground
23) [line 29] חותך שתי צלעות משתי דפנות אילך ואילך CHOTECH SHTEI TZELA'OS MI'SHTEI DEFANOS EILACH V'EILACH - one cuts off two ribs from two sides here and there; i.e., (a) one cuts the first small rib near the neck on either side of the animal, and this too is part of the portion given to the Kohen (RASHI). (b) Another explanation is that two ribs on either side are cut off and given to the Kohen as part of the breast (TOSFOS)
24) [line 31] קרמא עילאה KERAMA ILA'A - the upper membrane [that is attached to the brain]
25) [line 32] חייתא דמתנח ביה מוחא CHAISA D'MISNACH BEI MOCHA - the pouch in which the brain lies
26) [line 33] כנגדו בביצים ניכר KENEGDO B'VEITZIM NIKAR - there are similar membranes that surround the testicles
27) [line 34] כל מה שבקדירה KOL MAH SHEB'KEDEIRAH - whatever is contained within the cranium [is considered like the brain]
28) [line 35] כחוט השדרה K'CHUT HA'SHIDRAH - like the spinal cord
29) [line 1] מונחין על פי הקדרה MUNACHIN AL PI HA'KEDEIRAH - they look like two beans lying at the entrance to the cranium
30) [line 6] לבית חלל קטן L'VEIS CHALAL KATAN - a small chamber of the heart
31) [line 10] לסמפון הגדול L'SIMPON HA'GADOL - the primary bronchi in each of the two main lobes
32) [line 11] להיכא דשפכי סמפונות כולהו L'HEICHA D'SHAFCHEI SIMPONOS KULHU - to the place where all the other bronchi converge
33) [line 15] חלב שעל גבי דפנות CHELEV SHE'AL GABEI DEFANOS - the fat that is on the walls
34) [line 16] תלתא קני הוו TELASA KANEI HAVU - there are three pipes that branch off from the trachea after it enters the chest of the animal
35) [line 17] דריאה כריאה, דכבדא ככבדא D'REI'A K'REI'AH, D'KAVDA K'KAVDA - the pipe of the lung is treated like the lung itself (it is considered a Tereifah by the slightest puncture), and the pipe of the liver is like the liver itself (it is not rendered Tereifah unless it is completely removed)
36) [line 20] אבא ABA - Rav. Rav was called Aba by Shmuel a) meaning "father" as a title of respect, since Rav was older than Shmuel (RASHI here and to Yevamos 57b); b) out of familiarity, since that was his name (and "Rav" was his title) (RASHBAM to Bava Basra 52a, ARUCH, Erech Abaye, cited by TOSFOS DH Itztrich)
37) [line 27] נתמרך NISMARECH - it became liquefied
38) [line 28] נתמסמס NISMASMES - it softened
39) [line 28] כל שנשפך כקיתון KOL SHE'NISHPACH K'KITON - [liquefying refers to] anything that pours out like a jug of water; i.e., the nerve tissue liquefied to such a degree that it pours from one end to the other, and would come out if a puncture was made
40) [line 30] נתמזמז NISMAZMEZ - if the nerve tissue of the brain lost substance (ROSH)
41) [line 32] לוי הוה יתיב בי מסותא LEVI HAVAH YASIV BEI MASUSA - Levi was sitting in the bathhouse
42) [line 32] דטרייה לרישיה D'TARYEI L'REISHEI - a certain man smashed his head into the wall
43) [line 34] בין הפרשות BEIN HA'PERASHOS - the cord that runs between the branches; i.e., the spinal cord begins to branch out above the animal's hind legs, with one branch of the cord going down to one leg, another branch going down to the other leg, and the middle branch continuing down the spine toward the tail
44) [line 36] ליחוי לי מר LICHVI LI MAR - would the master show me...
45) [line 37] בליעה טפי BELI'AH TEFEI - if, between the branches, it is too deeply embedded in the fat and therefore not recognizable
46) [line 37] כחוש KACHUSH - lean
47) [line 38] בליטן טפי BELITAN TFEI - the hipbone protrudes too much and flattens out the branch nerves so that they are not recognizable
48) [line 38] עד אחת, טריפה AD ACHAS TEREIFAH - until the first [area between the branches], [if the majority is cut] it is Tereifah