THE NEFF FAMILY MASECHES BERACHOS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
BERACHOS 2-3 - The first two Dafim in Shas, the start of the 12th Dafyomi cycle, have been dedicated anonymously by a reader in Switzerland.
(a) What is the earliest time to recite Keri'as Sh'ma shel Arvis?
(b) Rebbi Eliezer gives the final time to recite it as the end of the first night watch (of angels), which is equivalent to the end of the fourth hour (i.e. one third of the night). What do ...
1. ... the Chachamim and ...
2. ... Raban Gamliel, respectively say?
(c) So why did the custom evolve to recite the Sh'ma before nightfall, and what are one's obligations as regards reciting it again after nightfall?
(d) Why did Chazal decree that the Mitzvos whose prescribed time is until morning, should be performed before midnight?
(a) What is the 'Hekter Chalavim ve'Eivarim' discussed by the Mishnah?
(b) What is the difference between the Chalavim and the Eivarim?
(c) Until when must it be performed?
(a) The Tana takes the Mitzvah of K'ri'as Sh'ma for granted. From which Pasuk in Va'eschanan do we learn it?
(b) Which other Kashya do we answer with the same Pasuk?
(c) From which Pasuk in Bereishis might the Tana also have taken his cue?
(d) Why does the Tana not conclude the discussion of K'ri'as Sh'ma shel Arvis immediately? Why did he continue only later in the Perek?
(a) Considering that the Kohanim eat their T'rumah at nightfall, why did the Tana not simply write that the time for reciting the Sh'ma shel Arvis is nightfall?
(b) In that case, how must we interpret "u'Va ha'Shemesh" and "Vetaher"?
(c) What else could the phrase mean?
(d) On what grounds does Rabah bar Rav Shiloh reject that interpretation?
(e) Which Beraisa did the Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael cite which brought them to the same conclusion?
(a) According to the Beraisa, the earliest time to recite the Sh'ma is when an Ani (a poor man) comes in from work to eat his bread dipped in salt, and the final time (for everyone) is when he gets up from his meal. The Seifa is definitely stating a new (fourth) opinion, over and above the three stated in our Mishnah. How do we initially reconcile the Reisha with our Mishnah?
(b) We query this from yet another Beraisa, where Rebbi Meir gives the earliest time to read the Sh'ma as 'when people come in to eat their bread on Friday night'. What do the Chachamim say?
(c) What Siman do they give to mark their opinion?
(d) And they even cite a Pasuk in Nechemyah describing how some of the people used to work, what did the others used to do?
(e) From when till when does the Pasuk present in describing this?
(a) The Tana then cites another Pasuk there which writes that the night was for work, and the day for guarding. Why is the first Pasuk alone not sufficient proof that night is gauged from when the stars come out? How is the proof strengthened by the second Pasuk?
(b) We now think that 'Ani' and 'people' are one and the same. What problem does this create, if, as we learned earlier 'Ani' and 'Kohen' are also one and the same?
(c) How do we counter the suggestion that Ani and Kohen cannot therefore be the same Shi'ur?
(d) We conclude however, that the reverse is true from yet another Beraisa, which we will now discuss. Rebbi Eliezer gives the time to recite K'ri'as Sh'ma as from when Shabbos comes in. When exactly is that?
(a) What does Rebbi Yehoshua mean when he says from the time that the Kohanim become Tahor to eat T'rumah?
(b) What similar Shi'ur does Rebbi Meir give?
(c) On what basis does Rebbi Yehudah disagree with Rebbi Meir?
(d) What did he say in Bameh Madlikin that serves as the basis for his objection?
(a) Rebbi Chanina gives the Shi'ur of Ani (that we discussed earlier). What final Shi'ur does Rav Acha (or Rav Acha'i) give?
(b) How do we now prove once and for all that the Shi'ur of 'Ani' and that of 'Kohen' cannot be one and the same (in which case, that of 'Ani' and 'people' in the Beraisa above, can and are one and the same)?
(c) Who is the author of our Mishnah, which gives the Shi'ur as 'Kohen'?
(d) Rebbi Chanina gives the Shi'ur of 'Ani'. Based on the fact that Rebbi Eliezer gives the Shi'ur as 'when Shabbos comes in', how do we know that the Shi'ur of 'Ani' is later than that of 'Kohen'?
(e) What is therefore the correct sequence of these three Shi'urim?
(a) We already cited Rebbi Yehudah's Kashya on Rebbi Meir ('when the Kohanim Tovel') that the Kohanim Tovel before Bein-ha'Shemashos, and this does not conform with the Pasuk "be'Shochb'cha". How does Rebbi Meir counter Rebbi Yehudah's Kashya?
(b) How do we reconcile Rebbi Meir in one Beraisa (from the time that people come in to eat on Erev Shabbos) with what he says in the other Beraisa (Kohanim), which is earlier?
(c) What is the problem with Rebbi Eliezer in the Beraisa, who gives the earliest time for reciting the Sh'ma as when Shabbos comes in?
(d) One answer is that Rebbi Eliezer's opinion, like that of Rebbi Meir, is a Machlokes Tana'im. What is the alternative answer?