1)ADDITIONS THAT MUST BE MENTIONED IN THE BERACHOS
(a)(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): If one did not mention "Eretz Chemdah u'Tovah" in Birkas ha'Aretz, or "Malchus Beis David" in Boneh Yerushalayim, he does not fulfill his obligation;
(b)Nachum the elder says, one must mention Bris [Milah] (in Birkas ha'Aretz, for in the merit of the Mitzvah of Bris Milah, Eretz Yisrael was promised to Avraham);
(c)R. Yosi says, one must mention Torah (in Birkas ha'Aretz, for in this merit Yisrael received Eretz Yisrael);
(d)Flimo says, one must mention Bris before Torah, for there are three covenants to keep the Torah, while there are thirteen [mentions of "Bris"] regarding circumcision.
(e)R. Aba says, one must thank Hash-m at the beginning and end of Birkas ha'Aretz;
1.At least, he must say one expression of thanks -- less than this is reproachful.
2.One who ends Birkas ha'Aretz with "[Baruch Atah Hash-m] Who bequeaths lands," or ends Boneh Yerushalayim with "Who saves Yisrael" is unlearned.
3.If one did not mention Bris and Torah in Birkas ha'Aretz, or Malchus Beis David in Boneh Yerushalayim, he did not fulfill his obligation.
(f)This supports R. Ila'a:
1.(R. Ila'a): If one did not mention Bris and Torah in Birkas ha'Aretz, or Malchus Beis David in Boneh Yerushalayim, he did not fulfill his obligation.
(g)(Aba Yosi ben Dosta'i or Rabanan): One must mention Malchus (Hash-m's kingship) in ha'Tov veha'Metiv;
(h)(The other of Aba Yosi ben Dosta'i and Rabanan): One need not mention Malchus in ha'Tov veha'Metiv.
1.The first opinion holds that ha'Tov veha'Metiv is mid'Rabanan (thus it is an independent Berachah by itself, therefore it needs Malchus);
2.The latter opinion holds that it is mid'Oraisa (it is next to the previous Berachos of Birkas ha'Mazon, Malchus in the first Berachah suffices for all of the Berachos).
2)THE CLOSING OF BONEH YERUSHALAYIM
(a)(Beraisa) Question: How do we end the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim?
(b)Answer (R. Yosi bar Yehudah): We end "[Baruch Atah Hash-m] Who saves Yisrael."
(c)Objection: Do we say "Who saves Yisrael" and not "Boneh Yerushalayim"?!
(d)Answer: He means, we also say "Who saves Yisrael."
(e)(We normally begin Boneh Yerushalayim with two requests, for mercy on Yisrael and Yerushalayim.) Rabah bar Rav Huna visited the Reish Galusa; he began with one request, and ended with two [praises -- "Who saves Yisrael" and "Boneh Yerushalayim").
(f)Question (Rav Chisda): It is improper to end with two!
1.(Beraisa - Rebbi): We do not end with two.
2.(Levi asked Rebbi all the following questions, in which we end a Berachah with two praises.)
3.Question: [We end Birkas ha'Aretz,] "Al ha'Aretz v'Al ha'Mazon"!
4.Answer: That is really one praise, for the land which produces food.
5.Question: [We end me'Ein Shalosh for fruits] "Al ha'Aretz v'Al Peroseha"!
6.Answer: That is for the land which produces fruits.
7.Question: [On Yom Tov, in Shemoneh Esreh and Kidush we end Kedushas ha'Yom] "Mekadesh Yisrael veha'Zemanim"!
8.Answer: Hash-m is Mekadesh Yisrael, Yisrael are Mekadesh the festivals.
9.Question: [On Rosh Chodesh, in Musaf we end Kedushas ha'Yom] "Mekadesh Yisrael v'Roshei Chodashim"!
10.Answer: Hash-m sanctifies Yisrael, Yisrael sanctifies the months.
11.Question: [When Yom Tov is on Shabbos, we end Kidush and Kedushas ha'Yom] "Mekadesh ha'Shabbos v'Yisrael veha'Zemanim"!
12.Answer (Rebbi): That is the one exception.
13.Question: Why is it different?
14.Answer: Here, it is basically one praise -- Hash-m is the One who sanctifies;
i."Who saves Yisrael" and "Boneh Yerushalayim" are two distinct praises.
(g)Question: Why don't we end with two?
(h)Answer: That is like doing Mitzvos in bundles.
(i)Question: What was the conclusion?
(j)Answer #1 (Rav Sheshes): If one began Boneh Yerushalayim with "Rachem Al Amcha Yisrael," he ends "Who saves Yisrael"; if one began "Rachem Al Yerushalayim," he ends "Boneh Yerushalayim."
(k)Answer #2 (Rav Nachman): Even if he began "Rachem Al Amcha Yisrael," he ends "Boneh Yerushalayim" (because these are connected).
1.It says "Boneh Yerushalayim Hash-m Nidchei Yisrael Yechanes" -- Hash-m will rebuild Yerushalayim when He [has mercy on Yisrael and] gathers Yisrael from their dispersion.
(l)R. Zeira (to Rav Chisda): Come, we will learn [Mishnayos] together.
(m)Rav Chisda: I don't even know Birkas ha'Mazon, I am not fit to learn!
(n)R. Zeira: What do you mean?!
(o)Rav Chisda: I said Birkas ha'Mazon in the Reish Galusa's house; Rav Sheshes strongly criticized me, for I did not mention Bris, Torah or Malchus.
(p)R. Zeira: Why did you omit them?
(q)Rav Chisda: I acted according to Rav:
1.(Rav): If one did not mention Bris, Torah or Malchus [Beis David] in Birkas ha'Mazon, he fulfilled his obligation.
2.(Seemingly, Rav's ruling was only b'Di'eved. Why did Rav Chisda follow it? Rashba's text - Rav would not mention them in Birkas ha'Mazon, because they do not apply to women, and only one text of Birkas ha'Mazon was enacted.)
3.We know that mentioning Bris is not absolutely necessary, for it does not apply to women (their Mitzvah of Birkas ha'Mazon is the same as men's);
4.Mentioning Torah and Malchus is not absolutely necessary, for they do not apply to women or slaves.
(r)R. Zeira: Why did you act like Rav, against all the Tana'im and Amora'im above?!
3)ADDITIONS TO BIRKAS HA'MAZON
(a)(R. Yochanan): One must mention [Hash-m's] Malchus in ha'Tov veha'Metiv.
(b)Question: Is the Chidush that every Berachah needs Malchus? R. Yochanan already taught this!
(c)Answer #1 (R. Zeira): He teaches that two Malchuyos are required; the second is to compensate for the lack of Hash-m's Malchus in Boneh Yerushalayim.
1.Question: If so, a third Malchus should be required, to compensate for not mentioning Malchus in Birkas ha'Aretz!
i.You must say, we need not compensate for [omitting Malchus in] Birkas ha'Aretz, because it is adjacent to another Berachah (the Malchus of Birkas ha'Zan counts for it).
ii.Likewise, we need not compensate for Boneh Yerushalayim, because it is adjacent to another Berachah!
2.Answer: Indeed, we need not compensate for Boneh Yerushalayim because it lacks the Malchus that every Berachah needs, because it is adjacent to another Berachah;
i.Rather, it is improper to mention Malchus Beis David without mentioning Malchus Hash-m; for this we compensate in ha'Tov veha'Metiv.
(d)Answer #2 (Rav Papa): Two Malchuyos are required in ha'Tov veha'Metiv, in addition to the usual Malchus at the beginning (Baruch Atah... Melech ha'Olam). (We say ha'El Avinu Malkeinu... ha'Kel ha'Melech ha'Gadol.)
(e)(Rav Gidal): If (on Shabbos) one forgot to mention Shabbos (he did not say Retzeh in Boneh Yerushalayim), he says, "Baruch she'Nasan Shabbasos li'Menuchah... Baruch Mekadesh ha'Shabbos."
1.Rav Huna: Who said this?
2.Rav Gidal: Rav said it.
(f)(Rav Gidal): If one forgot to mention Yom Tov (Ya'aleh v'Yavo), he says, "Baruch she'Nasan Yomim Tovim... l'Simchah... Baruch Mekadesh Yisrael veha'Zemanim."
1.Rav Huna: Who said this?
2.Rav Gidal: Rav said it.
(g)(R. Zeira citing Rav Gidal): If one forgot to mention Rosh Chodesh, he says "Baruch she'Nasan Roshei Chodashim...."
(h)R. Zeira: I do not know whether or not he says "l'Simchah," whether or not he ends the Berachah, and whether he said this himself or in the name of Rav.
(i)Rav Nachman erred and returned to the beginning of Birkas ha'Mazon; Gidal bar Minyomi asked him why.
(j)Rav Nachman: It is because Rav Shila cited Rav to say that one who erred must return to the beginning.
(k)Gidal: But Rav Huna cited Rav to say that if one erred, he says "Baruch she'Nasan..."!
(l)Rav Nachman: Rav Menasiya bar Tachlifa cited Rav to say this is only if he did not begin ha'Tov veha'Metiv -- but if he began it, he must return to the beginning.
(m)(Rav Idi bar Avin citing Shmuel): If one forgot to mention Rosh Chodesh in Shemoneh Esreh, he goes back (he must repeat it); if one forgot Rosh Chodesh in Birkas ha'Mazon, he does not go back.
(n)Question (Rav Avin): Why is Shemoneh Esreh different than Birkas ha'Mazon?
(o)Answer (Rav Amram citing Rav Nachman): Shmuel did not explain this to me, I assi,e as follows:
1.Shemoneh Esreh is an obligation, therefore one must repeat it; Birkas ha'Mazon is not an obligation, i.e. one need not eat bread, therefore he need not repeat it.
(p)Question (Rav Avin): According to this, on Shabbos and Yom Tov, when one must eat bread, he should have to repeat it!
(q)Answer (Rav Amram): Yes!
1.(R. Shila citing Rav): If one forgot (to mention Shabbos or Yom Tov in Birkas ha'Mazon), he must repeat it.
(r)Question: But Rav Huna cited Rav to say that if one erred, he says "Baruch she'Nasan..."!
(s)Answer: We already answered, this is only if he did not begin ha'Tov veha'Metiv -- but if he began it, he must return to the beginning.
4)THE AMOUNT ONE MUST EAT
(a)(Mishnah) Question: How much must one eat to be included in a Zimun?
(b)(The anonymous first Tana (assumed to be R. Meir) says, a k'Zayis; R. Yehudah says, a k'Beitzah.)
(c)Inference: R. Meir holds that a k'Zayis is significant; R. Yehudah says, a k'Beitzah is significant.
(d)Contradiction: Elsewhere, they express the opposite opinions!
1.(Mishnah): (If one who was on his way to do a Mitzvah on Erev Pesach and remembered that he has Chametz in his house:
i.If he can return to burn it and still be able to perform the Mitzvah afterwards, he must do so;
ii.If not, he should annul the Chametz in his heart and proceed to the Mitzvah.)
2.Similarly, if someone left Yerushalayim and remembered that he is carrying Kodesh meat (which became Pasul upon leaving)-
i.If he already passed Tzofim (Rashi - a particular place; Tosfos - anywhere) [from where one can see the Mikdash], he burns it where he is;
ii.If not, he returns to burn it in front of ha'Birah (in Har ha'Bayis), from wood designated for the Ma'arachah (the fire on the Mizbe'ach).
3.Question: What quantity (of Chametz or meat) obligates one to return?
4.Answer #1 (R. Meir): The quantity for both of them is k'Beitzah;
5.Answer #2 (R. Yehudah): The quantity for both of them is k'Zayis.
(e)Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): The opinions must be switched (Tosfos - in our Mishnah).
(f)Answer #2 (Abaye): The opinions need not be switched -- here, they argue about how to expound "v'Achalta v'Savata u'Verachta":
1.R. Meir says "v'Achalta" refers to eating, "v'Savata" alludes to drinking;
i."Eating" normally refers to a k'Zayis.
2.R. Yehudah expounds "v'Achalta v'Savata" -- eating that gives satiation, i.e. a k'Beitzah.
3.Regarding returning (to burn Chametz or Kodesh meat), their argument is based on reasoning-
i.R. Meir holds that one must return for a quantity that is important enough to be Metamei, i.e. a k'Beitzah;
ii.R. Yehudah holds that one must return for a quantity that is important enough for one to be liable for eating it, i.e. a k'Zayis.
5)THE TEXT OF THE ZIMUN
(a)(Mishnah) Question: What do we say in a Zimun?
(b)Answer: If there are three people in all, the Mezamen says, "Let us bless"; if there are [at least] three without him (but less than ten in all), he says, "Bless";
1.If there are ten people in all, he says, "Let us bless Elokeinu"; if there are ten without him, he says, "Bless Elokeinu";
2.The same applies if there are 10 or [up to] 10,000.
3.(The next clause contradicts this! The Gemara will resolve this.)
4.If there are 100 people in all, he says, "Let us bless Hash-m Elokeinu"; if there are 100 without him (but less than 1000), he says, "Bless Hash-m Elokeinu";
5.If there are 1000 people in all (alternatively - without him), he says, "Let us bless (alternatively - Bless) Hash-m Elokeinu Elokei Yisrael";
6.If there are 10,000 people in all (alternatively - without him), he says, "Let us bless (alternatively - Bless) Hash-m Elokeinu Elokei Yisrael Elokei Tzevakos... for the food that we ate";
7.The others answer like the Mezamen said -- "Baruch Hash-m Elokeinu... for the food that we ate";
(c)R. Yosi ha'Glili says, the Berachah is according to the number of people -- "b'Makhelos Barchu Elokim Hash-m mi'Mekor Yisrael."
(d)R. Akiva says, we find in synagogue (prayer) that the Berachah does not depend on the number of people, we always say, "Barchu Es Hash-m"!
(e)R. Yishmael says, we say, "Barchu Es Hash-m ha'Mevorach."