1)PAS HA'BA B'KISNIN
(a)Version #1 (Rav Hai Gaon): Rav Huna ate 13 breads of Pas ha'Ba b'Kisnin, each was a third of a Kav, he did not bless [Birkas ha'Mazon] on them.
(b)Version #2 (Bahag): Rav Huna ate 13 loaves, each was a third of a Kav, he did not bless on them (because he was not satiated). (End of Version #2)
(c)(Rav Nachman): He ate these on account of hunger -- since others fix a meal on such an amount, he must bless on them!
(d)Rav Yehudah married his son to a daughter of Rav Yehudah bar Chaviva; he heard people of that family blessing ha'Motzi on Pas ha'Ba b'Kisnin, and was astounded.
(e)Bei Rav Yehudah bar Chaviva: Yes, we bless ha'Motzi!
1.(Beraisa - R. Muna): One blesses ha'Motzi on Pas ha'Ba b'Kisnin.
2.(Shmuel): The Halachah follows R. Muna.
(f)Rav Yehudah: Shmuel said that the Halachah does not follow R. Muna!
(g)Bei Rav Yehudah bar Chaviva: You yourself cited Shmuel to say that one may use Lachmaniyos to make an Eruv, and one blesses ha'Motzi on them! (Rashi defines Lachmaniyos as wafers or cakes (which he said earlier (41b) are considered Pas ha'Ba b'Kisnin); Tosfos defines them as very thin wafers.)
(h)Rav Yehudah: That is when one fixed his meal on them -- if not, he does not bless ha'Motzi.
2)FOOD AFTER THE MEAL
(a)Rav Papa visited the home of Rav Huna brei d'Rav Nasan. After the meal, they were served more food; Rav Papa ate.
(b)Bei Rav Huna: Don't you hold that after the meal, it is forbidden to eat (until saying Birkas ha'Mazon)?
(c)Rav Papa: That is only if the bread was taken away.
(d)Rava and R. Zeira ate at the Reish Galusa's house; after the serving tray was removed, more portions were sent to them. Rava ate, R. Zeira did not.
(e)R. Zeira: Don't you hold that after the bread was taken away, it is forbidden to eat?
(f)Rava: We have intent to eat more in the event that the Reish Galusa will serve more to us (even after our tray was removed).
(g)(Rav): If one normally anoints his hands with oil after eating, his meal does not end until he does so (even if he finished eating and removed the tray, he may eat more without blessing).
(h)(Rav Kahana): We normally anoint with oil after eating, our meal does not end before this.
(i)The Halachah does not follow these teachings, rather, it is like R. Chiya bar Ashi.
1.(R. Chiya bar Ashi): There are three things that must be done immediately after something else without interruption:
i.Shechitah (the slaughtering of a Korban) must be right after Semichah, Tefilah (Shemoneh Esreh) must be right after [mentioning] Ge'ulah, one must bless [Birkas ha'Mazon] right after washing [Mayim Acharonim].
2.Abaye: There is something else that comes immediately -- right after hosting a Chacham, a Ba'al ha'Bayis will be blessed, as it says, "va'Yevarcheni Hash-m Biglalecha";
3.Alternatively, we can learn this from "va'Yevarech Hash-m Es Beis ha'Mitzri Biglal Yosef."
3)WHEN DOES A BLESSING FOR ONE FOOD EXEMPT OTHER FOODS?
(a)(Mishnah): If one blessed on wine before the meal, this exempts wine after the meal;
(b)If one blessed on appetizers before the meal, this exempts appetizers after the meal;
1.If one blessed on bread, this exempts appetizers; if one blessed on appetizers, this does not exempt bread;
2.Beis Shamai says, it does not exempt even cooked foods (of grain).
(c)If people were sitting (not reclining on beds, which was the usual practice while eating), everyone blesses for himself;
1.If they reclined, one blesses for everyone.
(d)If wine was brought during the meal, everyone blesses for himself; after the meal, one person blesses for everyone;
1.The same person blesses on the incense, even though it is brought after the meal (after Birkas ha'Mazon).
(e)(Gemara - Rabah bar bar Chanah): This is only on Shabbos and Yom Tov, for a person bases his meal on wine, but on a weekday, he blesses on every cup.
(f)(Rabah bar Mari citing R. Yehoshua ben Levi): This is only on Shabbos and Yom Tov or after a person leaves the bathhouse or lets blood, for then he bases his meal on wine -- at other times, he blesses on every cup.
(g)Rabah bar Mari visited Rava's house on a weekday; he saw him bless on wine before the meal and after the meal.
1.Rabah: Very nice -- R. Yehoshua ben Levi says to do so.
(h)R. Yitzchak bar Yosef visited Abaye on Yom Tov, he saw him bless on every cup.
(i)R. Yitzchak: Do you argue with R. Yehoshua ben Levi?!
(j)Abaye: No -- [each time] I had decided not to drink any more, therefore I needed a new blessing when I reconsidered.
(k)Question: If wine was brought in the middle of a meal, will [the blessing on] it exempt wine after the meal?
1.Perhaps [the blessing on] wine before a meal exempts wine after the meal because both of them are for the sake of drinking -- but wine during the meal is to soak the food, it does not exempt wine for the sake of drinking;
2.Or, perhaps in both cases it exempts wine after the meal?
(l)Answer #1 (Rav and Rav Nachman): It exempts.
(m)Answer #2 (Rav Kahana, Rav Sheshes... and all Talmidei Rav): It does not exempt.
(n)Question (Rava, against Rav Nachman - Mishnah): If wine was brought during the meal, everyone blesses for himself; after the meal, one person blesses for everyone (even though they blessed during the meal)!
(o)Answer (Rav Nachman): It means, if wine was not brought during the meal, but rather after the meal, one person blesses for everyone.
(p)(Mishnah): If one blessed on bread, this exempts appetizers; if one blessed on appetizers, this does not exempt bread;
1.Beis Shamai says, it does not even exempt cooked foods.
(q)Question: Does Beis Shamai argue with the Reisha, or with the Seifa?
1.Perhaps Beis Shamai argues with the Reisha -- the first Tana said that if one blessed on bread, this exempts appetizers, and all the more so cooked foods;
i.Beis Shamai says, it does not even exempt cooked foods.
2.Or, perhaps Beis Shamai argues with the Seifa -- the first Tana said that if one blessed on appetizers, this does not exempt bread, but it does exempt cooked foods;
i.Beis Shamai says, it does not even exempt cooked foods.
(r)This question is not resolved.
4)WHEN MAY ONE BLESS FOR EVERYONE ELSE?
(a)(Mishnah): If people were sitting, everyone blesses for himself; [if they reclined, one blesses for everyone].
(b)Inference: One blesses for everyone only because they were reclining.
(c)Contradiction (Beraisa): If ten people were travelling, even if all eat from the same loaf, everyone must bless for himself;
1.If they sat to eat, even if everyone eats from his own loaf, one person blesses for everyone.
2.It suffices that they sit, they need not recline!
(d)Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The case is, they said, "Let us go eat bread in Ploni (a certain place)."
(e)When Rav died, his Talmidim went to [another city] where he was buried; upon returning, they said, "Let's eat bread on the Danak River."
(f)Question (Rav's Talmidim): Does the Mishnah allow one to bless for everyone only if they recline, or is saying, "Let's go eat bread in Ploni," as good as reclining?
1.They could not answer this.
(g)Rav Ada bar Ahavah reversed his cloak (so the side he had torn over the death of Rav was now in back) and tore again (what was now in front) -- "Rav died, and we do not even know the laws of Birkas ha'Mazon!"
(h)An elder came, asked the above contradiction, and answered like Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak.