BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
THE NEFF FAMILY MASECHES BERACHOS
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[51a - 56 lines; 51b - 48 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 51a [line 26]:
With regard to the Aspargos/Ispargos, the words "v'Ein Machzirin Oso... v'Rak Acharav" ואין מחזירין אותו ... ורק אחריו
do not appear in Dikdukei Sofrim #70. They are also not found in Beis Nasan. This is the correct Girsa, since the Gemara wants to relate six things that deal with Aspargos/Ispargos, and not eight. (Accordingly, the Gemara counts "Mekablo bi'Yemin v'Shosehu bi'Semol" as one.)
 Gemara [line 31]:
The words "Ha bed'Chamra Ha bed'Shichra" הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא
are reversed in Dikdukei Sofrim #80, which reads "Ha bed'Shichra Ha bed'Chamra" הא בדשכרא הא בדחמרא. This is the correct Girsa, since the first word answers the second Beraisa, as in the other answers of the Gemara.
 Gemara [line 47]:
The words "v'Yesh Omrim Af Meshagro" ויש אומרים אף משגרו
should be "u'Meshagro" ומשגרו
This is the Girsa of the Dikdukei Sofrim #4, Behag, Rif, Rosh and other Rishonim. Accordingly, there are now ten things associated with the Kos Shel Berachah ("Notlo b'Shtei Yadav v'Nosno bi'Yemin" is counted as one).
 Rashi 51a DH v'Yochal Shum Acher : ד"ה ויאכל שום אחר
See the Hagahos (#1, 2) of the Vilna Ga'on. The Maharsha likewise emends Rashi. However, the Vilna Ga'on in Imrei No'am resolves our Girsa in Rashi by proposing that Rashi's text did not include the word "Hilkach" ("Hilkach Afilu Gamar...") in the Gemara. See .
1) [line 6] שום SHUM - garlic
2a) [line 7] ריחו נודף REICHO NODEF - he has bad breath (lit. his smell wafts)
b) [line 7] יחזור ויאכל שום אחר? YACHZOR V'YOCHAL SHUM ACHER? - Should he eat another piece of garlic? That is, should someone sin just because he has sinned before (continuing to eat without making a Berachah)?
3) [line 13] תנו רבנן אספרגוס TANU RABANAN ASPARGOS/ISPARGOS - It is not clear why the Gemara brings this Sugya here. It may be related to the previous Sugya on Daf 50b, "Arba'ah Devarim Ne'emru b'Pas," in that this Sugya also begins "Shishah Devarim Ne'emru b'Aspargos/Ispargos."
4) [line 13] אספרגוס ASPARGOS/ISPARGOS - a beverage of wine or beer made with asparagus (which has the quality of preventing inebriation - OTZAR HA'GE'ONIM #324) which people used to drink in the morning on an empty stomach
5) [line 17] ללע''ט L'LA"T - L'Lev (for the heart), Ayin (the eyes), Techol (and the spleen)
6) [line 18] לרמ''ת L'RM"T - L'Rosh (for the head), Me'ayim (the intestines), Tachtoniyos (abdominal troubles, hemorrhoids, etc.)
7) [line 18] מיושן MEYUSHAN - aged wine (three years old)
8a) [line 24] שותהו בשמאל SHOSEIHU BI'SEMOL - he drinks it with his left hand
b) [line 26] רק אחריו RAK ACHARAV - he must spit afterwards
c) [line 27] אין סומכין אותו EIN SOMCHIN OSO - we may not eat anything immediately after it [except…]
9) [line 29] שכרא SHICHRA - beer
10) [line 34] מימיו נזרקין MEIMAV NIZRAKIN - its juice is spit out
11) [line 35] שלשה דברים סח לי ... SHELOSHAH DEVARIM SACH LI ... - (a) Rebbi Yishmael ben Elisha went up to the heavens (the world of the angels) and spoke to the angels there (RASHI); (b) he spoke to angels by using a Holy Name that was given to him by the angel Gavriel (RABEINU CHANANEL)
12) [line 37] שתכספית TACHSAFIS - the name of a band of demons
13) [line 37] אסתלגנית ISTALGANIS - the name of a band of angels of destruction
14a) [line 42] אי פגע IY PAGA - and if he should meet up with [the Angel of Death]
b) [line 42] לינשוף מדוכתיה LINSHOF MI'DUCHTEI - he should jump from his place
15) [line 44] גודא GUDA - a wall
16) [line 44] ליקו אחורא LEIKU ACHORA - he should stand behind it
17) [line 44] "ויאמר ה' אל השטן יגער ה' בך [השטן ויגער ה' בך הבחר בירושלם הלוא זה אוד מצל מאש]" "VA'YOMER HASH-M EL HA'SATAN: YIG'AR HASH-M BECHA [HA'SATAN, V'YIG'AR HASH-M BECHA HA'BOCHER BI'YERUSHALAYIM, HA'LO ZEH UD MUTZAL ME'ESH.]"- 'And HaSh-m said to the Satan, 'May HaSh-m scold you, O Satan, and may HaSh-m who chooses Yerushalayim scold you! Is this man not a firebrand who was saved from the fire?" (Zecharyah 3:2) (YEHOSHUA KOHEN GADOL)
(a) Yehoshua Kohen Gadol, a righteous man, served as Kohen Gadol at the time of the Churban of the first Beis ha'Mikdash. The Navi Zecharyah saw how the Satan came to accuse Yehoshua for not rebuking his sons sufficiently for having married Nochri women (as was unfortunately common at that time) as recorded in Sefer Ezra. HaSh-m, however, stopped the Satan, since Yehoshua Kohen Gadol had been saved from the furnace into which he had been cast together with the wicked false prophets Ach'av ben Kulyah and Tzidkiyahu ben Ma'aseyah.
(b) These two wicked men used to pretend to be doctors and visit sick Babylonian women with whom they would then be intimate. Others explain that one of them would tend to a Jewish woman and inform her that he had seen a vision in which his friend would be intimate with her and that she would bear a child who was destined to become a Navi, and on the next occasion, his friend would "repay the favor."
(c) When a pregnant woman would consult one of these "illustrious prophets" to find out the gender of her child will be, he would answer that "it will be a boy," but then he would go and inform her neighbors that it would be a girl. If it turned out to be a boy, the happy mother would sing his praises to all her neighbors; if it turned out to be a girl, the neighbors would tell the mother that this was what he had told them, adding that he did not want to tell her the truth lest it upset her.
(c) All was going well for these two evildoers until they approached the princess of Bavel, the daughter of Nevuchadnetzar, with their usual proposition. Ach'av said, "So says HaSh-m: Listen to Tzidkiyah," while Tzidkiyah instructed her to listen to Ach'av.
(d) When she went and told her father what they had said, he replied that as far as he knew, the G-d of Yisrael hated adultery, and that the next time they approached her with their advances, she should send them to him.
(e) When they told him that they were merely repeating what their G-d had told them, Nevuchadnetzar replied that he had asked Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah, who had told him that adultery was strictly forbidden. They then insisted that they, too, were no less of prophets than those three Tzadikim. The king then challenged them to undergo the same test (in a fiery furnace) that Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah had undergone. They claimed that Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah were saved because they were three, while the combined merits of only the two of them were insufficient to merit such a great miracle. The king then gave them the right to choose a third person to be thrown into the furnace with them. Convinced that on his merit they would emerge unscathed, they picked Yehoshua Kohen Gadol, who was a great Tzadik. The three of them were thrown into the fire. The two evildoers were roasted to a cinder, while Yehoshua Kohen Gadol emerged unscathed ("a firebrand saved from the fire"); only his clothes were scorched, as a punishment for having failed to rebuke his sons sufficiently for marrying Nochri women.
18) [line 45] [חליפי] (חלפי) (CHALFEI) [CHALIFI] - until he [the Angel of Death] leaves him alone
19a) [line 46] הדחה HADACHAH - washing the inside
b) [line 46] שטיפה SHETIFAH - washing the outside
20) [line 46] עיטור ITUR - adornment
21) [line 46] עיטוף ITUF - wrapping oneself or one's head [with a cloak or scarf]
22) [line 50] נחלה בלי מצרים NACHALAH BELI METZARIM - an inheritance without bounds
23) [line 53] נטלי NATLEI - with small cups
24) [line 53] חי CHAI - there are four explanations for the word "Chai," as mentioned in the Tur #183: (a) the wine is poured into the Kos Shel Berachah undiluted, [and is diluted during Birkas ha'Mazon] (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) the wine is taken out of the barrel with the intent that it be used for the Kos Shel Berachah (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (c) the wine is slightly diluted [and will be further diluted during Birkas ha'Mazon] (RABEINU TAM); (d) the cup that will be used as the Kos Shel Berachah is whole (unbroken). Since the Gemara (Bava Kama 54a) calls the breaking of utensils "Misasan" (their death), "Chai" refers to the unbroken cup. (TOSFOS to Pesachim 108b DH Sheta'an)
25) [line 6] כריך ריפתא KARICH RIFTA - he (Ula) ate his meal (lit. folded bread)
26) [line 8] לישדר מר LISHDAR MAR - the Master should send
27) [line 8] ילתא YALTA - Yalta, his (Rav Nachman's) wife
28) [line 16] זיהרא ZIHARA - anger
29) [line 16] לבי חמרא L'BEI CHAMRA - in the storeroom of wine
30) [line 16] דני DANEI - barrels
31) [line 17] כסא אחרינא KASA ACHARINA - another cup of wine from the same barrel
32) [line 17] כל האי נבגא דברכתא היא KOL HAI NAVGA, D'VIRCHESA HI - all of the cups of wine that come from this entire barrel can be considered like the Kos Shel Berachah
33a) [line 18] ממהדורי מילי MI'MAHADUREI MILEI - peddlers (lit. those that go around [from town to town]) always have what to say, i.e. your words are meaningless
b) [line 18] ומסמרטוטי כלמי U'MI'SEMARTUTEI KALMEI - and worn-out rags breed lice, i.e. your words are worth as much as the lice that come out of worn-out clothing
34) [line 20] כוס שני KOS SHENI - that is, after drinking two cups. See .
35) [line 20] השותה כפלים HA'SHOSEH KIFLAYIM - one who drinks cups of wine at a meal in multiples of two. See Pesachim 110a.
36) [line 26] מברך על היום MEVARECH AL HA'YOM - one recites the blessing on the sanctity of the day 37) [line 27] מוזגין את הכוס MOZGIN ES HA'KOS - we add water to the cup of wine to make it fit to drink (lit. we dilute the cup) 38) [line 29] הכסת HA'KESES - the pillow 39) [line 29] מכבדין את הבית MECHABDIN ES HA'BAYIS - they clean (sweep) the area in the room where they ate 40) [line 35] עד שיאותו לאורו AD SHE'YE'OSO L'ORO - until they benefit from its light 41) [line 36] יתעכל YIS'AKEL - it will be digested 42) [line 40] כותי KUSI (KUSIM, SAMARITANS)
36) [line 26] מברך על היום MEVARECH AL HA'YOM - one recites the blessing on the sanctity of the day
37) [line 27] מוזגין את הכוס MOZGIN ES HA'KOS - we add water to the cup of wine to make it fit to drink (lit. we dilute the cup)
38) [line 29] הכסת HA'KESES - the pillow
39) [line 29] מכבדין את הבית MECHABDIN ES HA'BAYIS - they clean (sweep) the area in the room where they ate
40) [line 35] עד שיאותו לאורו AD SHE'YE'OSO L'ORO - until they benefit from its light
41) [line 36] יתעכל YIS'AKEL - it will be digested
42) [line 40] כותי KUSI (KUSIM, SAMARITANS)