BERACHOS 2-3 - The first two Dafim in Shas, the start of the 12th Dafyomi cycle, have been dedicated anonymously by a reader in Switzerland.

[3a - 50 lines; 3b - 48 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 3b [line 47]:

"v'Acharei Achisofel Benayahu ben Yehoyada" ואחרי אחיתופל בניהו בן יהוידע

This is Rashi's Girsa. The Girsa of Tosfos is

"Yehoyada ben Benayahu" יהוידע בן בניהו (see Divrei ha'Yamim I 26:34)

[2] Rashi 3b DH b'Chadtei : ד"ה בחדתי

"sheha'Chomah Shelah Naflah v'Odenah b'Chezkasah" שהחומה שלה נפלה ועודנה בחזקתה

The Ya'avetz and Maharatz Chayos emend this to read

"sheha'Chomah Shelo Naflah Odenah b'Chezkasah"שהחומה שלו נפלה עודנה בחזקתה

However, if the word "v'Odenah" ועודנה is referring to the Churvah and not to the Chomah, there is no need for any emendation.

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1a)[line 9]איכא משמרות ברקיעIKA MISHMAROS BA'RAKI'A- that there are "watches" in the sky (of the ministering angels)

b)[line 9]ואיכא משמרות בארעאV'IKA MISHMAROS B'AR'A- and there are "watches" on the earth (i.e. signs that make it apparent that the Ashmoros in the heavens are changing - RASHI)

2)[line 12]שואג כאריSHO'EG KA'ARI- He roars like a lion

3)[line 12]"ה' ממרום ישאג וממעון קדשו יתן קולו שאוג ישאג על נוהו""HASH-M MI'MAROM YISH'AG UMI'ME'ON KODSHO YITEN KOLO; SHA'OG YISH'AG AL NAVEHU"- "[Therefore prophesy against them all these words, and say to them,] 'The Lord shall roar from on high, and utter His voice from His holy habitation; He will constantly roar because of His dwelling (the destroyed Beis ha'Mikdash); [He shall give a shout, as those who trample the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth.']" (Yirmeyahu 25:30) - There are three words in this verse that are related to the word "Sha'ag," to roar, corresponding to the three times that HaSh-m "roars" at the changing of the Mishmaros.

4)[line 13]סימן לדברSIMAN LA'DAVAR- (lit. the sign for the matter) these are the signs that make it apparent on earth that the Ashmoros are changing

5)[line 14]חמור נוערCHAMOR NO'ER- a donkey brays

6)[line 15]כלבים צועקיםKELAVIM TZO'AKIM- dogs bark

7)[line 15]תינוק יונק משדי אמוTINOK YONEK MI'SHEDEI IMO- infants nurse from their mothers' breasts

8)[line 18]אורתא הואURTA HU- it is [the beginning of the] night

9)[line 24]למאן דגני בבית אפלL'MAN D'GANI B'VAYIS AFEL- for someone who sleeps in a dark, windowless room

10)[line 33]חורבהCHURVAH- a destroyed building (in which the roof has collapsed)

11)[line 34]שמר ליSHAMAR LI- and waited for me

12)[line 40]תפלה קצרהTEFILAH KETZARAH (HAVINENU)

The "short prayer" refers to "Havinenu", a shortened version of the daily Shemoneh Esrei prayer. The first three and last three blessings remain the same. The thirteen blessings that are requests are condensed into one blessing which ends in Shome'a Tefilah (Berachos 29a). It was used by travelers who were forced to pray on the road, when there was no life-threatening danger. There is a difference of opinion as to whether it was abolished or may still be used. All agree that it cannot be used in a city.

13)[line 43]בת קולBAS KOL

One of the minor forms of prophecy is called Bas Kol (lit. echo), where certain individuals on a high spiritual status hear a heavenly voice. The Gemara in numerous places cites instances when a Bas Kol was heard, relaying information from Heaven to the earth.

14)[line 43]מנהמת כיונהMENAHEMES K'YONAH- cooing like a dove

15)[line 47]מנענע ראשוMENA'ANE'A ROSHO- He shakes His head

16)[line 48]מקלסין אותוMEKALSIN OSO- they praise Him

17)[last line]חשדCHESHAD- suspicion [of licentiousness]

18)[last line]המפולתHA'MAPOLES- [the danger of] collapse

19)[last line]המזיקיןHA'MAZIKIN- the demons

3b----------------------------------------3b

20)[line 1]חדתיCHADTEI- a structure that has collapsed recently, in which the remaining walls are sturdy

21)[line 1]בתריBI'TREI- we are dealing with a case where two men are present, in which case Mazikin do not attack

22)[line 2]פריציPERITZEI- immodest, licentious

23)[line 6]במקומן חיישינןB'MEKOMAN CHAISHINAN- in their haunts, we must consider that they are present even if two men are present

24)[line 7]דבראDAVRA- the field

25)[line 11]"ויבא גדעון ומאה איש אשר אתו בקצה המחנה ראש האשמורת התיכונה""VA'YAVO GID'ON U'ME'AH ISH ASHER ITO BI'KETZEI HA'MACHANEH ROSH HA'ASHMORES HA'TICHONAH"- "So Gid'on, and the hundred men who were with him, came to the outside of the camp in the beginning of the middle watch; [and they had just set the watch; and they blew the Shofaros, and broke the jars that were in their hands.]" (Shoftim 7:19)

26)[line 17]חצות לילה אקום להודות לך על משפטי צדקך"""CHATZOS LAILAH AKUM L'HODOS LACH AL MISHPETEI TZIDKECHA."- "At midnight I will rise to give thanks to You because of Your righteous judgments." (Tehilim 119:62)

27)[line 19]"קדמו עיני אשמרות לשיח באמרתך""KIDMU EINAI ASHMUROS LA'SI'ACH B'IMRASECHA."- "My eyes open before (lit. precede) the night watches, [that I may meditate on Your saying.]" (Tehilim 119:148)

28)[line 24]אין אומרין בפני המת אלא דבריו של מתEIN OMRIN BIFNEI HA'MES ELA DEVARAV SHEL MES

(a)These words mean that when one is next to a Mes, a dead man, he is permitted to speak only about the needs of his burial, eulogies, and the like (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 344:16). Our Gemara quotes two opinions with regard to this Halachah:

1.This refers to Divrei Torah, since all are obligated in learning Torah, but the dead man is unable to engage in the discussion, and thus it is considered "Lo'eg la'Rash," "One who mocks the destitute" (Mishlei 17:5). Ordinary conversation that does not involve Divrei Torah, however, is permitted.

2.Besides Divrei Torah, ordinary conversation is prohibited all the more so. The reasons given are (a) so that all present make sure to see to the burial; and (b) since the dead man understands what is being said until he is in his grave, and will become upset when those present speak about things other than his needs (Mefarshim).

(b)This Halachah applies when one is standing within four Amos of the Mes (TOSFOS et al.). Some indicate that the limitation of four Amos applies only to the first opinion above, but according to the second opinion it is prohibited even outside of four Amos, when in the presence of the Mes (see TOSFOS HA'ROSH and RAV ELAZAR MOSHE HA'LEVI HOROWITZ). Others rule that even the second opinion prohibits conversation only within four Amos of the Mes, but outside of four Amos it is permitted (see PISKEI HA'RID). The SHACH and TAZ (Yoreh De'ah ibid.) rule that one is prohibited to speak Divrei Torah even outside of four Amos of the Mes.

29)[line 28]"קדמתי בנשף ואשועה לדברך עדתיך""KIDAMTI VA'NESHEF VA'ASHAVE'A, [LI'DEVARCHA YICHALTI.]"- "I arose early in the night and I cry out; [my hope is in Your word.]" (Tehilim 119:147)

30)[line 28]"בנשף בערב יום באישון לילה ואפילה""B'NESHEF B'EREV YOM B'ISHON LAILAH VA'AFEILAH..."- "In the twilight, in the evening, in the black and dark night..." (Mishlei 7:9)

31)[line 31]היה מתנמנם כסוסHAYAH MISNAMNEM K'SUS- he would be awake but dozing off, in the manner of a horse (that does not fall into a proper sleep)

32)[line 31]היה מתגבר כאריHAYAH MISGABER K'ARI- he would strengthen himself like a lion

33)[line 33]ויקם דוד מהנשף ועד הערב למחרתם"""VA'YAKEM DAVID MEHA'NESHEF V'AD HA'EREV L'MACHARASAM"- "And David struck them from the Neshef until the evening of the next day; [and there escaped not a man of them, except for four hundred young men, who rode upon camels and fled.]" (Shmuel I 30:17) - The Gemara will examine whether Neshef means morning or evening (twilight).

34)[line 33]מצפראMI'TZAFRA- from the morning

35)[line 35]תרי נשפי הווTREI NISHPEI HAVU- there are two times of the day that are known as "Neshef," dawn and twilight

36a)[line 35]נשף ליליא ואתי יממאNASHAF LEILYA V'ASI YEMAMA- the night wanes and day comes

b)[line 36]נשף יממא ואתי ליליאNASHAF YEMAMA V'ASI LEILYA- the day fades and night comes

37)[line 41]כנורKINOR- a harp or lute

38)[line 42]נושבת בוNOSHEVES BO- he blows into it

39)[line 44]אין הקומץ משביע את האריEIN HA'KOMETZ MASBI'A ES HA'ARI- our limited sources of income are not enough for the entire people. RASHI (according to the Girsa of the Bach) cites two literal explanations for this parable: (a) a handful [of fodder] does not satiate the lion; (b) one grasshopper does not satiate the lion

40)[line 45]אין הבור מתמלא מחוליתוEIN HA'BOR MISMALEI ME'CHULYASO- the rich people do not have enough money to support the poor people. The Rishonim cite three literal explanations for this parable: (a) the pit is not filled with the dirt that was taken out of it (RASHI); (b) the well is never filled from the water source that is unearthed (TOSFOS, first explanation, citing the Tosefta to support this explanation); (c) one cannot fill a pit with the dirt that he digs from one side of the pit that he deposits on the other side (TOSFOS, second explanation, citing the RI)

41)[line 45]פשטו ידיכם בגדודPISHTU YEDEICHEM BI'GEDUD- (lit. extend your hands in battle) make war

42)[line 46]יועצים באחיתופלYO'ATZIM B'ACHISOFEL- they take counsel from Achisofel, David ha'Melech's advisor who later aided Avshalom ben David in the revolt against his father (Shmuel II 15:12-17:23, Divrei ha'Yamim I 27:34). His advice was considered tantamount to receiving counsel from HaSh-m (Shmuel II 16:23). He is one of the four non-royal personages who have no portion in the World to Come (Chelek la'Olam ha'Ba) due to his denial of the coming of Mashi'ach, which includes the fact that Mashi'ach will descend from David through Shlomo (RAMBAM Hilchos Teshuvah 3:6, Peirush ha'Mishnayos to Sanhedrin Perek Chelek, ha'Yesod Sheneim Asar). He intended that Avshalom should kill his father, after which he would have Avshalom convicted and killed for the very sins that he caused Avshalom to transgress. At that point he intended to take the monarchy for himself (TIFERES YISRAEL to Sanhedrin 10:2:12).

43)[line 46]נמלכין בסנהדריןNIMLACHIN B'SANHEDRIN - and they would ask the advice of the Beis Din ha'Gadol (SANHEDRIN)

(a)Most Halachic judgments are administered by three distinct courts: courts of three judges, who are fit to adjudicate in monetary matters; courts of twenty-three judges, who are fit to adjudicate even in capital cases; the Beis Din ha'Gadol of seventy-one judges, the Jewish "Supreme Court," that convenes in the Lishkas ha'Gazis in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash.

(b)The Beis Din ha'Gadol is known as the Sanhedri Gedolah. It is responsible for appointing the king of Yisrael and the Batei Din of twenty-three judges (Sanhedri Ketanah) in every tribe and city in Eretz Yisrael. In addition, only the Beis Din ha'Gadol may judge an entire tribe that was led astray and was convinced to worship Avodah Zarah (see Background to Chulin 89:31 and Background to Temurah 15:4). The capital cases of the Kohen Gadol and a Nevi Sheker (see Background to Sanhedrin 84:9) are also judged by the Beis Din ha'Gadol. Similarly, the Beis Din ha'Gadol is the only court that can judge a Zaken Mamrei (see Background to Horayos 2:5), an Ir ha'Nidachas (see Background to Erchin 7:7) and the Sotah woman (see Background to Nidah 3:1). Lastly, only the Beis Din ha'Gadol may enlarge the boundaries of Yerushalayim and the courtyards of the Beis ha'Mikdash (see Background to Shevuos 14:5), decide to wage a Milchemes ha'Reshus (see Background to Sanhedrin 2:29) and measure the distance between a murder victim found in the fields and the nearest town (see Background to Nidah 8:19, Eglah Arufah) (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 5:1).

(c)Our Sugya deals with Milchemes ha'Reshus. RASHI explains that the people asked permission from the Beis Din ha'Gadol so that those sages would pray for them. Even though they could ascertain from the Urim v'Tumim whether they would be victorious, they were still in need of prayer to prevent the many casualties of war (MEROMEI SADEH). Others explain that that the sages of the Beis Din ha'Gadol were asked to provide the people with advice with regard to military tactics according to the Torah (TOSFOS HA'ROSH, MAHARSHA, RAMBAM Peirush ha'Mishnayos to Sanhedrin and Sefer ha'Mitzvos).

44)[line 46]שואלין באורים ותומיםSHO'ALIM B'URIM V'TUMIM - they would ask the Urim v'Tumim (URIM V'TUMIM)

(a)A Name of HaSh-m was written on a parchment that was called the Urim v'Tumim. The Urim v'Tumim was placed in the Choshen, one of the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:30). The eight vestments are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).

(b)It was possible for a king of Yisrael to ask HaSh-m questions regarding the people of Yisrael and receive an answer using the letters engraved upon the gemstones of the Choshen. Letters containing the answer to his question would stick out in their places (in the order of the answer - MAHARSHA to Yoma 73b) or would come together to form the words and sentences of the answer. The Kohen Gadol would assist the Urim v'Tumim in the process of receiving an answer through his power of Ru'ach ha'Kodesh (Divine inspiration).

(c)The Gemara (Yoma 73b) gives two reasons as to why the parchment was called Urim v'Tumim. They were either "Me'irin (similar to "Urim") Es Divreihen," "they clarify their words," or "Mashlimin ("Tumim" means Shalem, complete) Es Divreihen," "they fulfill their words."

45)[line 47]"ואחרי אחיתופל (בניהו בן יהוידע) [יהוידע בן בניהו] ואביתר ושר צבא למלך יואב""V'ACHAREI ACHISOFEL (BENAYAHU BEN YEHOYADA) [YEHOYADA BEN BENAYAHU] V'EVYASAR V'SAR TZAVA LA'MELECH YOAV."- "And after Achisofel was Yehoyada the son of Benayahu, and Evyasar; and the general of the king's army was Yoav." (Divrei ha'Yamim I 27:34)

46)[last line]"ועצת אחיתופל אשר יעץ בימים ההם כאשר ישאל בדבר האלהים""VA'ATZAS ACHISOFEL ASHER YA'ATZ BA'YAMIM HA'HEM KA'ASHER YISH'AL BI'DVAR ELOKIM."- "And the counsel of Achisofel, which he counseled in those days, was as if a man had inquired of the word of God; [so was all the counsel of Achisofel both with David and with Avshalom.]" (Shmuel II 16:23)

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