ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The same Mishnah in Shabbos prohibits moving even four or five boxes, if they comprise all the boxes in the store-house - because, says Shmuel, one might go on to fill in any holes that one discovers once the space is cleared (an act which constitutes Binyan).
(b) This restriction might ...
1. ... not apply to our Mishnah - because Chazal may well have applied it to Shabbos, but not to Yom-Tov, which is less severe than Shabbos (although this seems to clash with the reverse Sevara that we cited on the previous Amud, and that we will cite shortly).
2. ... certainly apply to our Mishnah - because if it is forbidden to move all the boxes there on Shabbos, in spite of Bitul Beis Hamedrash (or Hachnasas Orchim), then it should certainly apply here on Yom-Tov, where neither of these is applicable.
(c) Rav Nachman - forbids moving the fruit (in our Mishnah) from one roof to another at all costs (even if they are both on the same level).
(d) This restriction might ...
1. ... not apply to the Mishnah in Shabbos - because it may well be forbidden on Yom-Tov, which is generally more lenient, and which people will come to treat with disrespect if one allows too many concessions, but not to Shabbos (as we explained on the previous Amud).
2. ... certainly apply there in Shabbos - where there is no loss involved.
(a) We ask a final She'eilah with regard to a certain Chumra that applies to 'Mashilin' on Yom-Tov: whether it will not apply to the Mishnah in Shabbos, because of Bitul Beis-Hamedrash, or whether it will certainly apply there in view of the fact that there is no monetary loss. We are referring to - the Chumra of not lowering the fruit by means of a rope or using a ladder.
(b) The final word on the matter (regarding all the above She'eilos) is - Teiku (which is the acronym of Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Iba'yos').
(a) The Tana of our Mishnah permits covering fruit to prevent it from becoming wet and spoiling on Yom-Tov. According to Ula, this extends even to a pile of bricks. Rav Yitzchak however - restricts this concession to fruit, ...
(b) ... which may be moved on Yom-Tov. But, as we have learned in Shabbos, Rebbi Yitzchak forbids may picking up a vessel to cover something which may itself, not be moved.
(c) We attempt to prove Rebbi Yitzchak from our Mishnah ('u'Mechasin Peiros b'Kelim ... ') - which implies 'fruit', but not a row of bricks, since it may itself, not be taken on Yom-Tov.
(d) And we reconcile the Mishnah with Ula, by establishing its ruling in the Seifa even to a row of bricks; And the reason that the Tana mentions fruit is on account of the Reisha, which permits lowering fruit down a skylight (but not a row of bricks).
(a) The Seifa of our Mishnah states 've'Chen Kadei Yayin, v'Chen Kadei Shemen'. Since the Tana is coming to add something new (not included in 'fruit'), we ask on Rebbi Yitzchak, why does he add 'Kadei Yayin and Kadei Shemen' rather than a row of bricks, which would have been a bigger Chidush.
(b) We answer - that 'Kadei Yayin and Kadei Shemen' refers to Tevel, which is forbidden (just like a row of bricks, which will therefore be included).
(c) This however, is only a suggestion. The Tana might have included them anyway, even if they were not Tevel - to teach us that one may even cover barrels of wine and oil, even though the loss is relatively small (seeing as they are liquid, and will not spoil in the rain as much as a solid).
(d) Rav Yitzchak will establish various Mishnah/Beraisa, which permits placing ...
1. ... a vessel underneath a leak - by a leak which is fit for an animal to drink (or for washing).
2. ... a mat on top of bricks - by bricks which remain after the building has been completed, which are fit to sit on.
3. ... a mat on top of stones (that are designated for building purposes) - by stones that have been sharpened, and are fit to use in a bathroom.
(a) The Beraisa permits placing a mat over a bee-hive on Shabbos - provided one does have the intention of trapping the bees inside.
(b) According to the Tana, he is protecting it from - the sun in the summer and the rain in the winter.
(c) We reconcile this Beraisa with Rebbi Yitzchak - by establishing it by a beehive containing honey (which is not Muktzeh).
(d) Rav Ukva mi'Meishan's problem with this answer is - from the winter (which the Tana specifically mentions), when there is no honey in the hive
(a) Rav Ashi establishes the Beraisa with regard to 'those two Chalos', with reference - to the two honey-combs that one would normally leave inside the bee-hive (after removing all the rest of the combs) as food for the bees for the duration of winter.
(b) We resolve the problem that having designated them for the bees, they are Muktzeh - by establishing the Beraisa where in a case when the owner had in mind before Yom-Tov to take them for himself.
(c) We query this answer however, in that the Tana itself does not appear to make such a distinction, seeing as he says in the Seifa 'u'Vilevad she'Lo Yiskaven la'Tzud', rather than ('Bameh Devarim Amurim she'Chashav Aleihem) Aval Lo Chashav Aleihem, Mai. Asur'.
(d) We refute this problem (to resolve the Beraisa with Rav Ashi) - by explaining that the Beraisa wants to teach us that even if he intended to take the honey, he must take care not to trap the bees (like Rebbi Yehudah, who forbids 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven).
(a) We assume that the Sugya has established the Reisha of the Beraisa like Rebbi Yehudah, who holds of Muktzeh - because otherwise, why did we not explain it like Rebbi Shimon, who does.
(b) We try to counter that assumption from the Seifa 'u'Vilevad she'Lo Yiskaven la'Tzud' - which appears to go like Rebbi Shimon.
(c) The problem with this counter-proof is - that even Rebbi Shimon would concede here that covering the hive ought to be prohibited, since it is 'Pesik Reisha' (as Abaye and Rava have taught on numerous occasions).
(d) We therefore establish even the Seifa like Rebbi Yehudah - and the Tana is speaking where the bee-hive has windows, which allow the bees to exit the hive.
(a) And when he writes 'u'Vilevad she'Lo Yiskaven la'Tzud', he means - that one should be careful not to cover the windows with the mat (in which case we need to emend the statement to 'u'Vilevad she'Lo Ya'asenah Metzudah').
(b) And the Chidush of the Beraisa (that one should take care not to trap the bees that are inside) - is that trapping extends even to creatures that are not as a rule, subject to trapping.
(c) Rav Ashi dispenses with the need to establish the Beraisa by 'those two honey-combs', because, pointing to the Tana's Lashon 'be'Chamah ... ' and 'u'vi'Geshamim ... ' (and not 'bi'Yemos ha'Chamah' and 'bi'Yemos ha'Geshamim'), he explains - that the Tana is referring (not to summer and winter, but) to Nisan and Tishrei ...
(d) ... when there is sun and rain, and when the hive also contains honey.
(a) We learned in our Mishnah, that placing a vessel underneath a leak is permitted - and the Beraisa extends this even to emptying it out and re-placing it should it become full.
(b) When a leak was threatening to ruin Abaye's mill - Rabah instructed him to bring his bed there. This would render the melting mill a 'Graf shel Re'i', and would permit him to remove it.
(c) Abaye queried Rabah's ruling - on the grounds that it is forbidden to make a Graf shel Re'i l'Chatchilah.
(d) Abaye's argument was flawed - either because the argument (of 'Ein Osin Graf shel Re'i l'Chatchilah') does not apply when it is to save a loss; or because in Abaye's case, where the rain was already leaking into the house, it is not really called 'l'Chatchilah' (in the way that inviting a Nochri is).
(a) When Abaye's mill caved in - he declared that it served him right for contravening his Rebbe's orders.
(b) Shmuel permits taking out a 'Graf shel Re'i' and an 'Avit shel Meimei Raglayim'. He also permits returning the empty potties, but only with water in them - because otherwise, they are 'Muktzeh Machmas Mi'us', and may not be moved.
(c) We initially restrict Shmuel's ruling to carrying out the offensive object via the vessel in which it is placed. Rav Ashi however - once permitted carrying out a mouse that they found among his spices, by its tail (a proof that the Heter for carrying out a Graf shel Re'i extends even to carrying out the disgusting objects themselves).
(a) Our Mishnah divides Isur Shabbos into three categories: 'Shevus', 'Reshus' and 'Mitzvah'. The category of ...
1. ... 'Shevus' - which by definition, means an Isur d'Rabanan, refers in our Mishnah to something which constitutes no Mitzvah at all.
2. ... 'Reshus' - refers to something that involves a slight Mitzvah; whereas ...
3. ... 'Mitzvah' - refers to something that constitutes a Mitzvah.
(b) All kinds of hand-clapping and dancing (for purposes of rejoicing or music) are included in Shevus, and so are climbing a tree - riding an animal and swimming.
(c) The list of Reshus includes judging, betrothal - and performing Chalitzah or Yibum.
(d) The third list (of 'Mitzvah') incorporates declaring something Hekdesh, Erech or Cheirem - and the separation of Terumos and Ma'asros.
(a) The Mishnah - forbids all of the above prohibitions Yom-Tov, too.
(b) The only distinction The Mishnah lists between Shabbos and Yom-Tov is - Ochel Nefesh.
(a) Chazal forbade ...
1. ... climbing a tree on Shabbos or Yom-Tov - because one may come to break off branches that hinder one's progress.
2. ... riding on an animal's back - because one might come to break off a twig from a tree to use as a whip.
(b) The reason for the latter cannot be because one may come to ride outside the Techum - because Techumin may be d'Rabanan, and if they to decree because of it would constitute a Gezeirah li'Gezeirah (which we do not say).
(c) Chazal forbade ...
1. ... swimming - because one may come to fashion a swimmer's barrel.
2. ... hand-clapping and dancing - because one may come to fabricate a musical instrument.
3. ... judging, betrothal, Chalitzah and Yibum - because one may come to write (the Beis-Din's ruling or the relevant documents required by the various parties).
(d) The reason that ...
1. ... judging is termed 'Reshus' (and not 'Mitzvah') is - because the Tana speaks when there is a greater expert than oneself.
2. ... betrothal is - because he speaks in a case where one has already fulfilled the Mitzvah of having children.
3. ... Chalitzah and Yibum is - because he speaks when there is an older brother.
(e) Nevertheless, he does not list them together with Shevus - since they do involve a Mitzvah (albeit reduced).