ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) It is forbidden to weigh using weights on Yom-Tov.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah permits using scales on Yom-Tov - by weighing the meat (for example) against a vessel whose weight he knows.
(c) The Chachamim say 'Ein Mishtamshin b'Chaf Moznayim Kol Ikar' - to forbid using scales, even if it is only to guard the food against mice.
(d) He would permit that however, if the scales were not hanging on the wall (in the way that they are positioned when one weighs with them)?
(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel forbids ...
1. ... an experienced butcher to weigh a piece of meat against a weight that one is holding in the other hand (because an expert can assess the exact weight in this way).
2. ... an experienced butcher to weigh in water - which means using a measuring cup (because an expert can assess the weight by the level of the water by the markings on the vessel).
(b) Rav Chiya bar Ashi forbids making a handle in a piece of meat. Ravina confines this to one that is formed with a knife - (because it is 'weekdayish', but permits a hole that he pokes into the meat with his finger, which is not.
(c) One may make a Siman on a piece of meat on Yom-Tov - to ensure that the Shali'ach who transports the meat (assuming he is a Nochri) does not swap the meat for a piece of non-Kasher meat.
(a) Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi would divide meat between them by weighing a Manah against a Manah (on the scales). This is difficult, because - Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah permits only weighing meat against a vessel, but not against another piece of meat (which is considered 'weekdayish'); as for the Rabanan, using scales is Asur in any event.
(b) We resolve this problem by establishing Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi like Rebbi Yehoshua, who permits weighing a Manah against a Manah.
(c) Rav Yosef rule like Rebbi Yehoshua - because a Stam Mishnah in Bechoros holds like him.
(a) According to the Mishnah in Bechoros, one is permitted to ...
1. ... weigh a Manah against a Manah when selling a Bechor, even though it is forbidden to weigh it on scales using weights - because it is not considered 'weekdayish'.
2. ... sell other Kodshim even using scales to weigh them, and even in a shop - because the proceeds go to Hekdesh, whereas the proceeds of a Bechor that one sells, go to the owner (which is why both are forbidden by a Bechor).
(b) Abaye disagrees with Rav Yosef's connection between Yom-Tov and Kodshim. In his opinion, the Heter of weighing a Manah against a Manah ...
1. ... on Yom-Tov, according to Rebbi Yehoshua, may well not apply to Kodshim - where we must contend with the denigration of Kodshim.
2. ... by Bechor, according to the Chachamim, may well not apply to the case of Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi on Yom-Tov - because there it was a matter of two partners dividing the meat, which is 'weekdayish', seeing as it was normal to divide things in that manner; whereas by Bechor, it was not normal to sell meat like that, and it is therefore not considered 'weekdayish' to do so. (Consequently, Rav Yosef's proof that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yehoshua falls away).
(c) The fact that Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi found it necessary to weigh the meat when dividing it - is strange in the face of another incident (where Rebbi Chiya once took five out of seven fish for his family, yet Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi was not in the least angry). From here we see that they were close friends and were not in the least fussy if one received more than the other.
(d) Rav Papa resolves this problem - by changing one of the names of the pair: either it was Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi, or Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi and Bar Kapara.
(a) One may not use a grindstone to sharpen a knife on Yom-Tov. Our Mishnah permits rubbing one knife against another (because it constitutes a Shinuy) - Rav Huna restricts the Isur in our Mishnah to a grindstone, but a wooden grinder is permitted.
(b) According to the first Lashon, Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel (referring to the Reisha of Rav Huna) permits even sharpening the knife provided one uses a wooden sharpener - a grind-stone is permitted if it is only in order to remove the fat from the knife.
(c) According to the second Lashon, a grindstone is completely forbidden - a wooden grinder will be permitted only to remove the fat.
(d) According to the third Lashon, Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel refers to the Reisha of our Mishnah, permitting even a grindstone to be used to remove the fat that is stuck to the knife. In that case, the Heter in the Seifa of rubbing one knife against another, even extends to sharpening it. In the fourth Lashon, Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel refers to the Seifa of the Mishnah - which permits only the rubbing of one knife against another; that is specifically to remove the fat, he explains, for which a grind-stone may not be used. As far as sharpening the knife is concerned, however, there is no Heter at all, not even if one uses a wooden grinder.
(a) The author of our Mishnah, which forbids using a grindstone to sharpen a knife - cannot be Rebbi Yehudah, who permits even Machshirei Ochel Nefesh on Yom-Tov, incorporating whatever is needed for Yom-Tov ("Lachem" - 'le'Chol Tzorcheichem').
(b) When Rava asked Rav Chisda whether they should Darshen in his name that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yehudah - he replied that one should only say such nice things in his name.
(c) Rava told Rav Nechemyah Brei d'Rav Yosef that he was rubbing a knife against the rim of a basket in order to clean off the fat - in reality, he was doing it in order to sharpen the knife. The reason that he did not want to say so is because, in his opinion, although the Halachah is Rebbi Yehudah, one does not publicize this (only that someone who knows the Halachah, may rely on it).
(d) Rava (and Rabah) did not want to rule like Rebbi Yehudah publicly -because of the strong likelihood that people will abuse this ruling, and permit even those Machshirin which could have been performed before Yom-Tov.
(a) There is a Machlokes Amora'im as to whether one may show one's Chalif (Shechitah knife) before Shechting (even though it is obligatory to do so). Chazal may have forbidden it - because it is 'weekdayish' (it looks as if one intends to sell meat in a shop (see also Rosh, Siman 12, and Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim Siman 498:1).
(b) To get around this prohibition - a Talmid-Chacham could examine his own Chalif and lend it to the Shochet.
(c) It is forbidden to sharpen a knife whose blade is completely spoilt on Yom-Tov - because it should have occurred to him before Yom-Tov that the knife will be unusable, whereas a blunt knife, one may well not sharpen before Yom-Tov, because one thinks that he will manage with the knife as it is.
(d) It is forbidden to sharpen a knife which is completely blunt on Yom-Tov however - because it entails excessive bother.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah (Who Darshens "Lachem" - 'le'Chol Tzorcheichem') permits sharpening a knife or a spit-rod, and clearing an oven of its ashes on Yom-Tov.
(b) The Rabanan learn from the word ...
1. ... "Hu (Levado Ye'aseh Lachem)" - "Hu" - 've'Lo Machshirav'.
2. ... "Lachem" - 've'Lo l'Nochrim'.
(c) Rebbi Yehudah learns from ...
1. ... "Hu" - to exclude Machshirin which he could prepare before Yom-Tov.
2. ... "Lachem" - to include Machshirin which he could not.
(d) It is forbidden to straighten a spit-rod that became bent - because one is able to use it as it is, making it an unnecessary bother (The Chidush is that even when he does not need an implement to straighten it, but is able to repair it with his hands, it is nevertheless forbidden).
(a) A spit-rod is Muktzeh on Yom-Tov, after one has roasted one's meat on it - because it becomes very ugly (nor does one have any more need of it).
(b) According to Rav Ada bar Ahavah Amar Rav Malkiyo - he is permitted to quickly drag it into a corner, without actually holding it properly.
(c) According to Rav Huna, it is only permitted if there is a k'Zayis of meat on it - Ravina allows it even there is not, because, due to its pointed end, it is dangerous and therefore permitted, just like a dangerous thorn in the street, which one may remove, to avoid people getting hurt.
(a) According to Rav Chinena Brei d'Rav Ika, the author of 'Sh'fod' (our case), 'Shefachos' and 'Gumos' is Rav Malkiyo; of 'Beluris', 'Eifer Makleh' and 'Gevinah', Rav Malkiya - according to Rav Papa, whatever deals with a Mishnah or Beraisa, is Rav Malkiya, whatever is just a plain Machlokes Amora'im, is Rav Malkiyo (The Siman to remember this is that both Mishnah and Beraisa end with an a., just like Malkiya).
(b) The difference between them is Shefachos, which is a Mishnah. Consequently, according to Rav Papa, it would be Rav Malkiya who said it (and not Rav Malkiyo, as Rav Chinena Brei d'Rav Ika maintains) - see also Tosfos DH 'Ika Beinaihu'.
(a) The butcher (Shochet) Shechts the animal - and the people simply divide it into portions. One should take care not to ask him for a Dinar's-worth of meat (since one may not mention amounts on Yom-Tov).
(b) In Sura, they would say to the butcher 'Give me a Tarta or half a Tarta; in Neresh, ' ... a Chalka or half a Chalka, and in Nahar Pakud and in Masa Machsaya, ' ... a Riv'a or half a Riv'a'. This refers to standard pieces of meat, which were called 'Tarta' in Sura, 'Chalka' in Neresh and 'Riv'a' in Masa Mechsaya (this method of distribution facilitated the distribution on Yom-Tov and paying the bill after Yom-Tov).