[20a - 44 lines; 20b - 53 lines]
1)[line 1]ממעות מעשר שניMA'OS MA'ASER SHENI
(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi.
(b)A second tithe is separated from the remaining produce every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor. The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni.
(c)The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it retains Kedushas Ma'aser Sheni and is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth of its value (that is, a fifth of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). In Yerushalayim, the money is used to purchase food items. The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh with Kedushas Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah.
2)[line 22]שכן מצוייןSHE'KEN METZUYIN- they are common (whenever a person wishes to bring a voluntary Korban, whereas Shalmei Chovah are offered only on Yom Tov)
3)[line 23]שכן כלילSHE'KEN KALIL- that it is totally burned on the Mizbe'ach (except for the hide)
4a)[line 24]אתיא מבינייאASYA MI'BEINAYA- Shalmei Chovah is learned from the common aspect (Tzad ha'Shaveh - one of the principles of a "Meh Matzinu," see next entry) of Shalmei Nedavah and Olas Chovah
b)[line 24]אתיא מבינייאASYA MI'BEINAYA (HA'TZAD HA'SHAVEH(
(a)The method of learning that is being used by our Gemara is called a comparison, or "Meh Matzinu" ("what we have found [in one subject, applies to another subject, also]"). Among the rules of this method is the rule of a "Pircha" (a question), where even a slight difference between the subjects causes the comparison to collapse, and no connection may be made.
(b)After a Pircha, the Gemara will bring a "Yochi'ach" or "Tochi'ach" (fem.) (a proof), where another subject, which fulfills the requirements of the Pircha, is used to rebuild the comparison. A second Pircha follows, where the Yochi'ach subject is brought into question. Then the original subject becomes the Yochi'ach.
(c)The conclusion is v'Chazar ha'Din (the Din goes back and forth), Lo Re'i Zeh k'Re'i Zeh (this subject is not exactly like that subject and vice versa), but the Tzad ha'Shaveh (common denominator) may be used to connect the Halachos of the two subjects. We may learn a new Halachah from them (in our case, that all Korbenos Yachid require Nesachim and Semichah). The common denominator may also be brought into question, which inhibits learning the new Halachah from the two subjects.
5)[line 28]תכף לסמיכה שחיטהTEKEF LI'SEMICHAH SHECHITAH- the animal has to be slaughtered immediately after the Semichah
6)[line 38]כשכש להםKISHKESH LAHEM- he wagged its tail at them (to hide its genitals so that they would think it was a female which is unfit for an Olah)
7)[line 1]צאן קדרTZON KEDAR- sheep from Kedar. Kedar is mentioned in Bereishis (25:13), as one of the sons of Yishmael. The Targum translates it as Arabia. They Kedarim were a well known, hostile, eastern tribe, raising and dealing in high-quality sheep. They lived in black tents. Some associate them with the Kidru mentioned in Assyrian writings or with the Cedrei found in ancient geographies.
8)[line 9]שתקו בנזיפהSHATKO B'NEZIFAH- he silenced him with a snarl
9)[line 10]צורבא מרבנןTZURBA ME'RABANAN- a young Talmid Chacham (RASHI to Ta'anis 4a)
10)[line 22]מי שלא חגMI SHE'LO CHAG- any person who did not bring a Korban Chagigah
11)[line 28]אם כן מה תלמוד לומר לכם?IM KEN MAH TALMUD LOMAR LACHEM?- (TOSFOS DH Lachem explains that this question is not such a strong question. The Gemara could simply have answered that Lachem prohibits the offering of Nedarim and Nedavos, since, according to the way Rashi explained the Tana Kama, Beis Hillel admits that these may not be brought on Yom Tov and they are prohibited due to "Lachem v'Lo l'Gavo'ah.")
12)[line 31]שכירתך פתוחהSHE'KIRASECHA SESUMAH- that your stove is closed (out of use, i.e. on Shabbos, due to the prohibition against cooking)
13)[line 50]כבשי עצרתKIVSEI ATZERES
On Shavuos, two sheep that are Zivchei Shelamim are offered in conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem. (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)
14)[line 51]שלא לשמןSHE'LO LISHMAN
(a)"Lishmah" is one of the Halachos that apply to Korbanos. This Halachah specifies that all of the actions that are performed on the Korban (the Avodos) must be done with the intent of offering it as the specific type of Korban for which it was designated, and for the owners who dedicated it. For example, if Reuven brings a Korban Olah, the Kohen must perform the Shechitah for the sake of Reuven's Korban Olah.
(b)Four Avodos of the Korban must be performed Lishmah: Shechitah, Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachah and Zerikas ha'Dam.