BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
1) [line 11] SHABBOS MIKADSHA V'KAIMA - Shabbos is permanently sanctified [from the time of Creation, and does not depend upon Benei Yisrael]
2) [line 13] UCHED'TARITZ RAVINA - (a) these are the words of Rav Yosef, and he is referring to a sage named Ravina who lived before his time (and not the Ravina who lived at the time of Rav Ashi, the later sages of the Gemara) (SHITAH MEKUBETZES, 1st explanation); (b) these are the words of the Gemara, explaining that Rav Yosef's conclusion is that we rule according to Rebbi's opinion, the way that Ravina interpreted it (and it is the Ravina who lived at the time of Rav Ashi) (SHITAH MEKUBETZES, 2nd explanation)
3) [line 16] ME'EIN HA'ME'ORA - a mention of the event
4) [line 24] MENI'ACH ... MI'YOM TOV LA'CHAVEIRO U'MASNEH - a person can make a conditional Eruv Techumin on the first day of Yom Tov, in order to walk more than 2000 Amos away from his city on the second day of Yom Tov. (He makes the following stipulation, "If today is a weekday and Yom Tov is actually tomorrow, then I am setting aside this food as my Eruv Techumin for Yom Tov. If Yom Tov is actually today, then tomorrow is a weekday and I do not need an Eruv Techumin.)
5) [line 30] DEL'MIKNEI SHEVISAH - to acquire residence - see Background to Beitzah 16:20
6) [line 31] B'EMES AMRU - it is an accepted Halachah. (According to the Yerushalmi (Shabbos 1:3), "b'Emes Amru" translates as "it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai." From the Rambam's introduction to Perush ha'Mishnah, though, it may be inferred that this is true only when "b'Emes Amru" is stated in a Mishnah. Our Beraisa indeed does not appear to mean that it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, since it is dealing with a practice that came about because of uncertainty as to which day is the actual day of Yom Tov. However Rashi Sukah 38a DH b'Emes Amru applies the Yerushalmi's translation even to a "b'Emes Amru" that is mentioned in a Beraisa. Accordingly, in our case it could mean "it is as clear as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai" - see MAHARATZ CHAYOS here.)
7) [line 34] KITON - a flask
8) [line 47] LO YATMIN - a person may not completely wrap food that was heated on Yom Tov in insulating material (the process called Hatmanah) in order to keep it warm for the Shabbos day meal
9) [line 10] SHE'LO YA'ARIM - he should not use a deceptive act; (to claim that he is cooking for Yom Tov when he is actually cooking for Shabbos)
10) [line 23] MANEI - utensils or garments
*11*) [line 30] DAG U'VEITZAH SHE'ALAV, SHE'BEIS SHAMAI OMRIM SHNEI TAVSHILIN - that is, both Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel agree that two Tavshilin are needed. However, they argue whether the egg and the fish it is on are considered two Tavshilin, or one. Beis Shamai maintains that two full-fledged Tavshilin are required -- that is, the fish and egg only count as one -- while Beis Hillel is lenient, as usual, and maintains that the fish and egg alone comprise two Tavshilin. (RASHI)
12) [line 32] PIRPER BEITZAH - if one crumbles a hard-boiled egg
13) [line 33] SHE'RISEK KAFLUTOS - if one chops leeks
14) [line 41] MASHIKIN ES HA'MAYIM (HASHAKAH)
(a) When one sinks a container containing water (or snow) that is Tamei into a valid Mikvah such that the water of the Mikvah flows over the rim of the container and touches the water inside of the container, the water inside of the container becomes Tahor. By touching the waters of the Mikvah, the water of the container has become "attached" or "planted" in the Tahor waters of the Mikvah, making the water in the container Tahor as well. This can be compared to the manner in which seeds that are Tamei can become Tahor by being planted in the ground (RASHI to Beitzah 17a DH v'Shavin; Gemara Pesachim 34b).
(b) Hashakah in a Mikvah can only be Metaher water, not other foods or liquids. The reason for this is that when Tamei water is touched to waters of a Mikvah, since they are the same material, the former can be considered to be "planted in," i.e. fully attached to, the latter. Any other material cannot become one with the waters of the Mikvah, and therefore it cannot become Tahor through Hashakah (RASHI to Nidah 17a DH Nit'har).
15) [line 42] MATBILIN MI'GAV L'GAV - when a person who immersed his Tamei utensils in a Mikvah on Erev Yom Tov, having in mind that he will use them in the process of squeezing olives for oil, changes his mind and decides to use them in the process of squeezing grapes for juice, he need not immerse them again. If he does want to immerse them again, anyway, he may do so even on Yom Tov, since this is a mere stringency; there is no question of Tikun Kli in this case.
16a) [line 42] CHABURAH
(a) It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 12:6), "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." The Pesach is a male lamb or goat within its first year.
(b) An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.
(c) In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places -- Pesachim 86a.)
b) [line 42] UME'CHABURAH L'CHABURAH - (a) when a person who immersed his Tamei utensils or garments in a Mikvah on Erev Pesach, having in mind that he will eat his Pesach with a certain Chaburah, changes his mind before the Pesach is slaughtered and decides to eat with a different Chaburah, he need not immerse them again. If he does want to immerse them again, anyway, he may do so even on Yom Tov, before he begins to eat, since this is a mere stringency; there is no question of Tikun Kli in this case (MEIRI); (b) when a person who immersed his Tamei utensils or garments in a Mikvah on Erev Yom Tov, having in mind that he will eat Ma'aser Sheni, for example, with a certain Chaburah (group of people), changes his mind and decides to eat Terumah, with a different Chaburah, he needs to immerse them again. He may immerse them even on Yom Tov, since this is a mere stringency; the Tevilah is are for extra Taharah and not for removing Tum'ah. There is no question of Tikun Kli in this case (RABEINU CHANANEL, RAMBAM, Perush ha'Mishnah)
Index to Background for Maseches Beitzah