BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
BEITZAH 14 (19 Cheshvan) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Chaim Mordechai ben Harav Yisrael Azriel (Feldman) of Milwaukee, by the members of the Feldman family.
1) [line 1] MECHACHU ALAH - they laugh about it
2) [line 5] NIDOCHIN - are ground, crushed
3) [line 5] MADOCH SHEL ETZ - a wooden pestle
4) [line 5] PACH - a flask made of pottery
5) [line 5] ETZ HA'PARUR - (O.F. poje) a ladle, a large spoon
6) [line 11] MEFIGIN TA'AMAN - they lose their flavor
7) [line 14] MORIKA - saffron
8) [line 24] KI DAICHAS - when you grind [salt]
9) [line 24] ATZLEI ATZLUYEI V'DOCH - tilt [the mortar at an angle] and grind
10) [line 25] KAL BUCHNA - the sound of a pestle [grinding salt]
11) [line 25] MI'GAVEI D'VEISA'I - from my house
12) [line 26] TZALIL KALEI - its sound is clear, ringing
13) [line 27] NEVUCHEI MENABACH - make a crunching sound (O.F. croissant - barking)
14) [line 28] TISNEI - wheat that is split in four (see Berachos 37a and Background to Berachos 37:3d, where this is called "Zariz")
15) [line 29] MACHTESHES - a mortar
16a) [line 1] HA LAN - this [Halachah, that it is permissible to use a small mortar] applies to us [in Bavel, (a) where we do not have recalcitrant slaves] (RASHI); (b) where our grain loses its flavor if ground on Erev Yom Tov (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 3:13); (c) where we are accustomed to eating Daisa that is ground in a large mortar; therefore, using a small mortar is enough of a Shinuy (IS D'MEFARSHEI, cited by the Me'iri)
b) [line 1] V'HA LEHU - that [Halachah, where even a small mortar is forbidden] applies to them [in Eretz Yisrael, (a) who have slaves that will use a large mortar and claim that they used a small mortar] (RASHI); (b) where the grain is hearty and does not lose its flavor if ground on Erev Yom Tov] (RAMBAM ibid.); (c) who only eat small amounts of Daisa during the year, and a small mortar is normally used (IS D'MEFARSHEI, cited by the Me'iri)
17) [line 2] DAISA - a dish of ground wheat, grits
18) [line 4] DAYIK TEFEI - ground very fine
19) [line 5] KALIF TZAHAREI - it was shiny, as if it had been recently ground
20) [line 6] PERITZUSA D'AVDEI - waywardness and disregard for the Halachah on the part of the slaves
21a) [line 9] KANON - a reed basket or pan that is wide at one end and narrow at the other end which is used to remove the outer shell of beans. As the beans slip through the pan the waste gets caught.
b) [line 10] TAMCHUY - a plate or tray
c) [line 10] TAVLA - a board
d) [line 10] NAPAH - a sieve
e) [line 11] KEVARAH - a basket used as a sieve
22) [line 11] MEDI'ACH V'SHOLEH - he washes (soaks) it in water and removes the chaff that floats on the surface of the water
23a) [line 16] NAFISH B'TIRCHA - the amount of effort required to remove the waste is greater than the amount of effort required to remove the substance that is needed (because the waste is broken into smaller pieces)
b) [line 17] V'ZUTAR B'SHI'URA - but there is less of it (the waste)
24) [line 22] GILEI - straw
25) [line 24] MANOS - portions of food that are ready to be eaten
26) [line 26] SALASOS - types of fine flour
27) [line 28] SHE'LO YA'ASENU B'SHURAH - he should not send them with a line of (many) people
28) [line 32] LUDIYOS - gladiators food made from (beans or) wheat
29) [line 34] RESISIN - groats
30) [line 35] TEFURIN - sewn
31) [line 36] KIL'AYIM (SHA'ATNEZ)
(a) Sha'atnez is a mixture of wool and linen which is prohibited, as the Torah states in Devarim 22:11. Chazal teach that the word "Sha'atnez" is made up of three smaller words -- "Shu'a" (combed), "Tavi" (spun) and "Noz."
(b) The Rishonim disagree over the translation of the word "Noz":
1. RASHI (Nidah 61b and Horayos 11a DH Noz) and the RASH (Mishnayos Kil'ayim 9:8) learn that Noz means woven together (the wool and linen are woven together in a garment).
2. TOSFOS (Nidah 61b DH Shua Tavi v'Noz) disagrees with Rashi's explanation. We learn that the prohibition of Sha'atnez applies only when the wool and linen are woven together from the word "Yachdav" in the verse. If so, Noz does not mean "woven together." Rather, Noz means that the threads must be twisted or wound.
(c) The Rishonim disagree about how the wool and linen must be joined in order to transgress the Torah prohibition of Kil'ayim:
1. RASHI (ibid.) holds that the wool and linen must be combed, spun, and woven together. That is, the strands of wool must be combed together, spun together, and then woven together with the linen in order to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez. If the strands of wool are combed or spun separately from the strands of linen, even though they are later woven into a garment together, the Torah prohibition of Sha'atnez has not been transgressed.
2. TOSFOS (ibid.) learns that one transgresses the Torah prohibition if the wool and linen are combed, spun, and twisted by themselves, and are then joined together by two stitches. The RASH (ibid.) agrees to Tosfos, and rules that if the wool and linen are combed and spun separately and then joined, the prohibition of Sha'atnez has been transgressed. (However he does not require that the threads be twisted, see b:1.)
32) [line 36] SANDAL HA'MESUMAR - a wooden sandal that has nail-heads protruding from its sole, which may be worn forwards or backwards.
METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION: A block of wood was covered in the center by a piece of leather that allowed the foot to enter. The leather was nailed down on both sides, with the nail-heads protruding slightly from the bottom of the wood. A long strap extending from both sides was attached in the center by nails, which was used to secure the sandal on the foot. The wooden block is called Sole, the upper piece of leather is called Panta and the straps are called Treisiyos (Rashi to Shabbos 60b DH Ela l'Chazek and DH Treisiyosav) (see Graphic #1 to Shabbos 60a)
33) [line 39] SHE'NE'OSIN BO - from which people derive benefit
34) [line 41] L'MEIMACH TUSEI - to fold, spread beneath him
35) [line 41]"U'VEGED KIL'AYIM SHA'ATNEZ LO YA'ALEH ALECHA" - "and a garment that is a mixture of combined fibers shall not go up onto you" (Vayikra 19:19)
36) [line 42] L'HATZIO TACHTECHA - to spread the garment under you
37) [line 43] SHEMA TIKARECH LO NIMA AL BESARO - perhaps one thread will fold over and cover his skin
38) [line 43] D'MAFSIK MIDI BEINI BEINI - that something is placed between the person and the Kilayim
39) [line 45] MATZA'OS - sheets; bedspreads
40) [last line] VILON - a curtain
Index to Background for Maseches Beitzah