[12a - 28 lines; 12b - 48 lines]
1)[line 3]אין מוציאיןEIN MOTZI'IN (HOTZA'AH)
(a)Hotza'ah is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either:
1.the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain);
2.Hachnasah, which refers to the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid;
3.Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, which refers to carrying an object from one place in a Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos;
4.Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through a Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah on Shabbos 96a).
All of these are biblical prohibitions.
(b)The Chachamim enacted that one may not perform Hotza'ah from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.
(c)Additionally, The Chachamim created a new designation for an area termed a Karmelis. A Karmelis bears similarities to both a Reshus ha'Rabim and a Reshus ha'Yachid, although it is not quite either of them. The Rabanan decreed that a Karmelis has the status of both a Reshus ha'Rabim and a Reshus ha'Yachid, whichever is more stringent given the situation. This is because one may confuse it with either of the two Reshuyos. Some examples of a Karmelis are a sea, a desert, and an area in Reshus ha'Rabim that is at least four by four Tefachim wide but not higher than ten Tefachim, such as a raised platform, pole, or fenced in area.
(d)The Torah permits the performance of Melachah (the thirty-nine creative acts of labor that are forbidden on Shabbos) on Yom Tov when such an action pertains to the preparation of food (Shemos 12:16). This includes the carrying of food from one domain to another. Beis Shamai does not allow the carrying of any other type of item on Yom Tov - such as a child, Lulav, or Sefer Torah - since they are not necessary for food preparation.
2)[line 6]עולת נדבהOLAS NEDAVAH (KORBAN OLAH)
(a)An Olah sacrifice has the status of Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Yoma 36:1), and is required of both the Tzibur (e.g., the Korban Tamid) and an individual under various circumstances. Voluntary Olos (Olos Nedavah) may be offered as well. An Olah must be brought by an individual to atone for the transgression of an Aseh (a positive commandment), a Lav she'Nitak l'Aseh (see Background to Yoma 36:19), or certain sinful thoughts (see Vayikra Rabah 7:3).
(b)One who offers a Korban Olah first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern area of the Azarah. He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking Hash-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Olah is applied to the northeastern and southwestern Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). An Olah is unique in that the meat of the animal is burned in its entirety. The skin of the animal, however, is given to the Kohanim. An Olah must be burned on the same day that it is slaughtered. Nesachim (see Background to 31:30) are offered together with a Korban Olah.
3)[line 8]מתוך שהותרה הוצאה לצורך הותרה נמי שלא לצורךMI'TOCH SHE'HUTRAH HOTZA'AH L'TZORECH, HUTRAH NAMI SHE'LO L'TZORECH
(a)The rule of "mi'Toch" ("since") operates on the principle that once a Melachah is permitted by the Torah for the sake of food preparation, then that Melachah becomes permitted entirely, even with regard to matters that do not relate to food preparation.
(b)There are a number of opinions among the Rishonim as to how far this principle goes and what activities are permitted through it. See Insights for a full discussion of this topic.
4)[line 14]בערוב והוצאה לשבת ואין ערוב והוצאה ליו"טB'ERUV V'HOTZA'AH L'SHABBOS, V'EIN ERUV V'HOTZA'AH L'YOM TOV (ERUVEI CHATZEIROS)
(a)According to Torah law, in a Chatzer (courtyard) containing different houses owned by different people, each homeowner may transfer objects from his own house into the common courtyard and into another's house on Shabbos. Although each house is a separately owned Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) and the Chatzer is a jointly owned Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.
(b)King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid owned by one party to that owned by another is forbidden, unless an "Eruv Chatzeros" (lit. a mixing of the courtyard, Rambam Hil. Eruvin 1:6, or fraternization of the courtyard, Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). (The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeros for an alley or a city is called a "Shituf Mevo'os".) This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread in a common container in one of the houses of the courtyard (or, in the case of Shituf, in one of the courtyards of the alleyway). This demonstrates that all of the neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they each have an equal share in the bread. Through this act, their respective houses can be considered as one Reshus (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9).
(c)Rabah suggests that the disagreement between Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai concerns whether the Halachos of Eruvei Chatzeros and Hotza'ah (see above, entry #1) apply to Shabbos only, or if they apply to Yom Tov as well.
(d)TOSFOS (DH Dilma) have a different Girsa in the Gemara: EIN ERUV HOTZA'AH etc. (with no Vav before the word "Hotza'ah"). According to this version of the Gemara, Rabeinu Chaim Cohen explains that Rabah's suggestion is that Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai disagree as to whether or not the prohibition of Hotza'ah is included (Me'urav) amongst the other prohibitions of Yom Tov.
5)[line 18]"וְלֹא-תוֹצִיאוּ מַשָּׂא מִבָּתֵּיכֶם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת ...""V'LO SOTZI'U MASA MI'BATEICHEM B'YOM HA'SHABBOS ... "- "And do not carry a burden out of your houses on the day of Shabbos ..." (Yirmeyah 17:22). In this and surrounding verses, Yirmeyah ha'Navi warns Klal Yisrael that in order to avoid the impending exile, they would need to keep Shabbos carefully, unlike the preceding generations.
6)[line 20]ליפלגו באבנים!LI'PALGU BA'AVANIM!- let them disagree regarding [whether or not] stones [may be carried on Yom Tov]! The prohibition of Muktzah (see Background to 11:18) is dependant upon the prohibition of Hotza'ah; the Chachamim prohibited touching and moving that which one may not remove from that domain so that he not come to do so accidentally. If there is no prohibition against Hotza'ah on Yom Tov, then even stones should not be Muktzah on Yom Tov (RASHI; See Insights for more details).
7)[line 25]גיד הנשהGID HA'NASHEH
(a)The Gid ha'Nasheh is the sciatic nerve (the large main nerve of the lower extremity) of an animal, which runs down the back of its rear leg. Eating the part of the Gid ha'Nasheh located on the rounded part of flesh ("Kaf") which sits upon the hipbone is prohibited by the Torah (Bereishis 32:33).
(b)Rebbi Yehudah is of the opinion that this prohibition applies to only one leg. He then declares that "knowledge determines" that this is the right leg. It is unclear if his intention was that it may be inferred from the Torah that only the Gid ha'Nasheh of the right leg is prohibited, or if it is most likely that the Gid which is prohibited is the right one, although we cannot be absolutely certain. According to all other Tana'im, this prohibition applies equally to the Gid ha'Nasheh of both rear legs (Chulin 90b).
(c)This prohibition applies to kosher four-legged Chayos (non-domesticated species of animals) and Behemos (domesticated species of animals), but not to birds.
(d)Aside from the Gid, which is prohibited to be eaten by the Torah, certain nearby fats and nerves are prohibited mid'Rabanan. If one intentionally consumes the Gid ha'Nasheh after being warned by witnesses, then he receives Malkus (lashes).
8)[line 26]מבשל גידMEVASHEL GID- cooking the Gid ha'Nasheh [on Yom Tov]
9)[line 27]בשר בחלבBASAR B'CHALAV
(a)The Torah transcribes the verse, "Lo Sevashel Gedi ba'Chalev Imo" - "Do not cook a young lamb in its mother's milk" - three times (Shemos 23:19, 34:26, and Devarim 14:21). Chazal understand that these three verses prohibit the following three actions: 1. cooking meat and milk together; 2. eating meat and milk that have been cooked together; and 3. deriving any benefit from meat and milk that have been cooked together. Additionally, the Chachamim instituted that one may not consume meat and milk at the same time even if they have not been cooked together.
(b)One who intentionally cooks, eats, or derives benefit from meat and milk after receiving a warning from witnesses receives Malkus (lashes).
(c)Although this law is Torah-mandated and requires no reason for us to be bound by it, a number of underlying reasons are suggested by the commentators. One is that meat represents the death of the animal, whereas milk represents new life. It is not proper to mix life and death (REKANATI, TZEROR HAMOR, ZOHAR 2:124b). Another suggestion is that eating meat and milk together used to be an idolatrous practice that was specifically carried out on festivals (MOREH NEVUCHIM 3:48; RALBAG). The SEFER HA'CHINUCH (#92 and #113) proposes that eating a mixture of meat and milk detrimentally affects one's character.
10)[line 1]הבערהHAV'ARAH- lighting a fire [on Shabbos or Yom Tov]
11)[line 1]פוק תני לברא!PUK TANI L'VARA!- go teach your Beraisa outside [of the Beis ha'Midrash]! (that is, Rebbi Yochanan was of the opinion that this Beraisa is incorrect)
12)[line 10]חלה ומתנותCHALAH U'MATANOS (MATNOS KEHUNAH)
(a)The Torah lists twenty-four gifts that non-Kohanim must give to Kohanim. These are known as the twenty-four Matnos Kehunah. Among these are Chalah and the Zero'a (foreleg), Lechayayim (lower jaw), and Keivah (abomasum, the last of the four stomachs of a ruminator) of a kosher animal.
1.With regard to the Mitzvah of Chalah, the verses state, "...b'Vo'achem El ha'Aretz...Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When you come into the land [where I shall bring you, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall separate a Terumah (tithe) to Hash-m.] You shall separate the first of your dough for a Terumah; [as you do with the Terumah separated from the grain of the threshing floor, so, too, shall you present this [to the Kohanim.]" (Bamidbar 15:18-20).
2.When one makes a dough from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion which must be given to the Kohen before he may eat from the dough. This portion is called Chalah. (The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah applies to a volume of dough made with at least 43.2 Beitzim of flour [about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters]. One who makes a dough that is at least approximately half of that size must separate Chalah without a Berachah.) A professional baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while one baking bread for his or her own household must separate 1/24. If one did not separate Chalah from his dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the bread may be consumed. Before Chalah is separated, the dough is called "Tavul l'Chalah," and anyone who eats it b'Mezid (intentionally) is liable to receive the punishments of Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Makos 13a).
3.Chalah may be eaten by Kohanim and their households while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to receive Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).
1.When one slaughters an ox, sheep, or goat that are not Kodshim (consecrated to the Beis ha'Mikdash), then he must give its Zero'a, Lechayayim, and Keivah to a Kohen (Devarim 18:3). The Zero'a includes the two upper bones of the right foreleg, from the knee until the top of the shoulder blade. The Lechayayim consists of the lower jaw, which extends from the joint where it is attached to the upper jaw until the thyroid cartilage, including the tongue. The Keivah is the maw along with its Chelev (surrounding fat), although Kohanim customarily allow the owner of the animal to keep the Chelev.
(c)Since one may prepare a dough or slaughter an animal on Yom Tov, he may separate these gifts for the Kohen on Yom Tov as well. (This stands as opposed to Terumos and Ma'asros, which may not be separated on Yom Tov.) Beis Shamai maintain that one may not actually give them to the Kohen on Yom Tov, however, since doing so has the appearance of a business transaction (PNEI YEHOSHU'A).
13)[line 11]שהורמו מאמשSHE'HURMU ME'EMESH- that were separated on the day prior [to Yom Tov]
14)[line 13]גזרה שוהGEZEIRAH SHAVAH- (in this context,) a comparison drawn by the Chachamim
15)[line 14]תרומהTERUMAH (TERUMAH GEDOLAH)
(a)Once a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Terumah is one of the twenty-four Matnos Kehunah (gifts given to Kohanim by non-Kohanim). Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop. Until Terumah and Ma'asros have been properly separated, the produce is termed "Tevel" and may not be eaten.
(b)Terumah must be eaten by Kohanim or their wives, unmarried daughters, and Nochri slaves, when they are Tehorim. If the wife of a Kohen is not herself the daughter of a Kohen, she may eat Terumah only as long as her husband or at least one of their sons is alive (Vayikra 22:11, Bamidbar 18:11; see Nidah 44a).
16)[line 17]זכאי בהרמתהZAKAI B'HARAMASAH- merit to [perform the Mitzvah of] separating it [on Yom Tov]
17)[line 22]מתנותMATANOS- [the] gifts [of Chalah, Zero'a, Lechayayim, and Keivah]
18)[line 24]דניןDANIN- rationalize
19)[line 28]על התרומהAL HA'TERUMAH- whether [or not one may deliver] Terumah [that was separated from before Yom Tov on Yom Tov]
20)[line 36]ובהנך דנשחטו מאמשUV'HANACH D'NISHCHATU ME'EMESH- and [the disagreement of Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai according to Acherim concerns only] those [Matanos that were separated from an animal] that was slaughtered on the day before [Yom Tov]
21)[line 37]טפלהTEFELAH- [whether or not one may bring Matanos that were separated on the day before Yom Tov to a Kohen] along with [those that were separated on Yom Tov itself]
22)[line 38]גרבא דחמראGARBA D'CHAMRA- a barrel of wine
23)[line 39]לאמטוייL'AMTUYEI- to bring it
24)[line 40]האידנאHA'IDNA- today [on Yom Tov]
25)[line 40]אושפזיכניהUSHPEZICHNEI- his landlord
26)[line 41]אסורייתא דחרדלאASURYASA D'CHARDELA- bundles of mustard seed pods
27)[line 41]לפרוכי ומיכל מנייהוL'FERUCHEI U'MEICHAL MINAIHU- to crack open [the pods, extract the seeds,] and eat from them
28)[line 42]לא הוה בידיהLO HAVA B'YADEI- he was unsure of the Halachah
29a)[line 42]מוללין מלילותMOLELIN MELILOS- one may remove wheat kernels [from their chaff] by rolling them [between his fingers, even though to use a vessel designed for that purpose is forbidden since falls under the category of Dash (threshing)]
b)[line 43]ומפרכין קטניותU'MEFARCHIN KITNIYOS- and one may crack open [the pods and shells of] legumes and other plants containing kernels
30)[line 43]מנפח מיד לידMENAPE'ACH MI'YAD L'YAD- he may [remove the chaff from them by] toss[ing] them from one hand to the other [in the wind]
31a)[line 44]קנוןKANON- a reed utensil used to shell beans
b)[line 44]תמחויTAMCHUY- a large tray used in shelling legumes
32)[line 45]מנפח על יד על ידMENAPE'ACH AL YAD AL YAD- he may [remove the chaff from them by] toss[ing] them [into the wind] a bit at a time
33a)[line 45]טבלאTAVLA- a board
b)[line 46]נפהNAPAH- a sieve
c)[line 46]כברהKEVARAH- a basket [used as a sieve]
34)[line 47]מצינו תרומה שזכאי בהרמתהMATZINU TERUMAH SHE'ZAKAI B'HARAMASAH- we have found a case in which Terumah is separated on Yom Tov. Since the wheat and legume kernels were still in their sheaves and pods, it is unlikely that Terumos and Ma'asros were separated from them. Yet, one may eat them on Yom Tov. It must be that one who does so is able to separate Terumos and Ma'asros on the spot.