1) [line 1] HA'METAMED - a person who makes Temed (O.F. bufet), inferior wine made from fermented grape pits or grape lees soaked in water
2a) [line 1] NASAN MAYIM B'MIDAH - he poured in a specific measure of water
b) [line 1] U'MATZA KEDEI MIDASO - and he found that the amount of Temed that resulted was equal to the measure of water that he poured in
3) [line 2] PATUR - he is exempt [from separating Terumos and Ma'asros for it, since it is considered to be merely water]
4) [line 9] KIYUHA - (O.F. aigror - sharpness, acidity) a liquid that is not wine, that has merely absorbed the acidity of the fermented grape lees
5) [line 9] SHEMARIM SHEL TERUMAH - the lees of wine that is Terumah (the process of separating Terumos and Ma'asros is described in Background to Bava Basra 96:1)
6a) [line 10] RISHON - the first [time that the person pours water over the lees to obtain Temed}
b) [line 10] SHENI - the second [time that the person pours water over the lees to obtain Temed]
7) [line 10] ASUR - are prohibited [to non-Kohanim, just like Terumah]
8) [line 11] AF SHELISHI B'NOSEN TA'AM - even the third [time that the person pours water over the lees to obtain Temed, if the Temed] has a taste of wine, [it is prohibited to non-Kohanim]
9) [line 18] KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM
(a) KEDUSHAS HA'GUF - an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5) or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is."
(b) KEDUSHAS BEDEK HA'BAYIS - an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh so that it should be used for filling the day to day needs of the Beis ha'Mikdash and not for Korbanos. (The term Kedushas Damim that is used in our Sugya refers to Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis and should not be confused with the term Kedushas Damim that is mentioned in Kidushin 52b -- see Background to Kidushin 52:35:b, c.)
10a) [line 19] MA'ASER VADAI - Ma'asros (tithes) from produce from which the obligation to separate Ma'asros is unquestionable (the process of separating Terumos and Ma'asros is described in Background to Bava Basra 96:1)
b) [line 20] MA'ASER DEMAI - Ma'asros (tithes) from produce from which the obligation to separate Ma'asros is in doubt (DEMAI)
(a) Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" -- "What is this?").
(b) Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").
11a) [line 21] L'INYAN ISURAN - with regard to (a) their prohibition [to non-Kohanim, with regard to Terumah (see Background to Bava Metzia 52:38, "Chomesh"); (b) their prohibition to be eaten outside of Yerushalayim, with regard to Ma'aser Sheni (see Background to Bava Metzia 90:1:d, e); and (c) their prohibition to be used for purposes other than for Bedek ha'Bayis
b) [line 22] L'INYAN HECHSHERAN - with regard to their ability to cause Hechsher l'Tum'ah (HECHSHER / KI YUTAN)
(a) Foods may become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Tamei. Wetting food with either of seven liquids, water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the food to become Tamei.
(b) The food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" -- "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" -- "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).
(c) It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei. On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid it does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are significant can cause Hechsher.
(d) It is only considered "Ki Yiten" when the liquid falls upon an object, with the will of the owner, that is detached from the ground.
12) [line 24] SHE'TAMDO B'MEI GESHAMIM - he used rain water to make the Temed
13) [line 24] KEIVAN D'KA SHAKIL V'RAMI LEHU L'MANA, ACHSHEVINHU - but since he took the rainwater and poured it into the utensil that contained the lees, he has demonstrated that he considers the rainwater important and desirable and it will be Machshir the Temed (see entry #11b)
14) [line 26] SHE'NISMAD ME'ELAV - the Temed was created without his intervention
15) [line 26] KEIVAN D'KA NAGID KAMA KAMA, ACHSHEVINHU - but since he has drawn of the Temed bit by bit, he has demonstrated that he considers the Temed important and desirable and it will become Muchshar to receive Tum'ah (see entry #11b)
16) [line 29] KIDUSH HA'YOM
Reciting or hearing Kidush on Friday night is a Mitzvas Aseh. It consists of the verses from Bereishis 2:1-3 (preceded by the last words of Bereishis 1:31), the Berachah over a cup of wine, and the Berachah sanctifying the day of Shabbos.
17) [line 30] YAYIN HA'RA'UY LINASECH AL GABEI HA'MIZBE'ACH (NISUCH HA'YAYIN)
All public and private sacrifices were brought together with wine libations (Nesachim) except for Korbenos Chatas and Asham. The wine was poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). The amount of wine needed depended upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar 15:1-12.
18) [line 31] YAYIN MI'GITO - lit. wine from his collection pit, i.e. grape juice
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