1) TYPES OF UNCOVERED WINE THAT ARE PERMITTED (Yerushalmi Halachah 3 Daf 11b)

בר יודנה הוה ליה קונדיטון מגלי שאל לרבנין ואסרון ולא כן א"ר יצחק בר נחמן בשם רבי יהושע בן לוי החד והמר והמתוק אין בהן משום גילוי

(a) Bar Yudna had Kunditun that had been left uncovered. He asked the Rabbis and they prohibited it. But didn't R. Yitzchak bar Nachman say in the name of R. Yehoshua ben Levi that for sharp (Kunditun), bitter and sweet, there's no concern of leaving open overnight and no concern for Yayin Nesech?

רבנן דקיסרין משום רבי יודה בר טיטוס באו דשחיק חד לתלתא.

(b) Answer (Rabbanan of Kisarin citing R. Yehuda bar Titus): Sharp refers to when it has 1/3rd herbs, 1/3rd honey and 1/3rd wine, but Bar Yudna had wine with less than 1/3rd of herbs mixed into it.

בעון קומי רבי אבהו מבושל שנתגלה מהו

(c) Question (to R. Abahu): What is the law concerning cooked wine that was left uncovered?

אמר לון קרינה צריכא לרבי יוחנן ואתון שאלון לי' הדא שאלון לרבי יצחק ואסר לון ואינדר רבי אבהו דבר רבי יוחנן אסור.

(d) Answer (R. Abahu): If R. Yochanan was doubtful about wine that had begun sweet (even though a snake doesn't like sweet wine); how can you ask me about wine that had started out as good wine (that a snake might drink from) but had become sweetened through cooking - it should certainly be prohibited!

בר נטיזה איתגליין ליה גיגיתיה שאיל לרבי בא בר ממל א"ל אם היה נכנס ויוצא מותר

(e) Bar Netizah's barrel of wine was left uncovered. He asked R. Ba bar Mamal who told him that if there was a person coming in and out of the room during that time, it is permitted. (As a snake would be afraid to go and drink from it.)

2) SLEEPING NEAR THE WINE (Yerushalmi Halachah 3 Daf 11b)

רבי יעקב בר אחא רבי אמי בשם רבי לעזר אם היה ישן מותר.

(a) (R. Yaakov bar Acha citing R. Elazar): If a person was sleeping close to the wine, it is permitted (as the snake would be afraid to come).

רבי חנינה רבי יהושע בן לוי חד אמר ישן מותר וחד אמר ישן אסור

(b) R. Chaninah and R. Yehoshua ben Levi disagreed. One said that if a person was sleeping there, it is permitted, the other said that it is prohibited.

מסתברא דר' חנינה אמר ישן מותר דבכל אתר סמיך רבי לעזר לרבי חנינה.

1. It is logical to say that R. Chaninah permitted it, because R. Elazar always relies on the view of R. Chaninah and R. Elazar said above that it is permitted.

רבי יוסי בן שאול משתעי אהן עובדא עובדא הוה איתא חדא דהוות רחמה מצוותא ובעלה שנא מצוותא אתא חד מסכן ויהבת קומוי ואכל ארגישת בבעלה איסליק וטמרתיה בעיליתי'. תבת קומי בעלה ואכל ודמך לי' אתא חיויא ואכל מן קומוי. קם בעלה מן שינתיה ובעא מיכול. שרי ההוא דעילתיה מלולי

(c) R. Yosi ben Shaul related a story about a woman who loved Mitzvos (like giving Tzedakah), but her husband hated them (because he was stingy). A poor man once came and she gave him food. She realized that her husband was coming and was afraid that he would be upset with her for doing so. She sent up the poor man to hide in the attic and served her husband a meal. Her husband fell asleep and a snake came and ate from the food. When the husband woke up, he wanted to eat that food, but the poor man (who had seen the snake eat from it) began crying out to warn him against it.

הדא אמרה ישן (מותר)[אסור].

1. Deduction: This shows that if a person was sleeping (close by), it should still be prohibited.

כריך הוה

2. (Rebuttal): The snake was often in the house (so it was not scared of the husband, but usually, snakes would be scared and would not come and consume it).

ואינו אסור משום ייחוד

(d) Question: Why wasn't the poor man suspected of adultery (since he was secluded with a married woman)?

כי ניאפו ודם בידיהם מכיון דלא הוה חשיד על דא לא חשיד על דא.

(e) Answer: The pasuk states (Yechezkel 23:37), "when they are adulterous, there is blood in their hands" - meaning that one who is suspected of adultery is also suspected of spilling blood; but since this poor man was not suspected of spilling blood as he saved the husband's life, he was also not suspected of adultery.

מעשה בחסיד אחד שהיה מגלגל בגילוים (ולקח)[ולקה] בדלקת וראו אותו יושב ודורש ביום הכיפורים וצלוחית של מים בידו.

(f) There was once a pious man who spoke disparagingly about the prohibition against consuming wine that was left uncovered. He was afflicted with high fever (because he consumed snake's venom after ignoring the prohibition). They saw him sitting and expounding on Yom Kippur with a flask of water in his hand. (Since his illness was life threatening, he needed to drink.)

מעשה בטבח אחד בציפורין שהיה מאכיל את ישראל נבילות וטריפות פעם אחת ערב יום הכיפורים עם חשיכה שתה יין הרבה ונשתכר ועלה לראש הגג ונפל ומת התחילו הכלבים מלקקין בדמו

(g) There was once a butcher in Tziporin who fed Jews Neveilos (animals not slaughtered correctly) and Tereifos (animals stricken with illness that would die within 12 months. Both of these are negative prohibitions in the Torah). Once, on Erev Yom Kippur, towards nightfall, he drank a lot of wine and became drunk and climbed up onto the roof and fell and died and dogs came and licked his blood.

אתון שאלון לרבי חנינה מהו מיעברתיה מן קומיהון אמר להן כתיב ואנשי קודש תהיון לי ובשר בשדה טריפה לא תאכלו לכלב תשליכון אותו זה גזל את הכלבים והאכיל את ישראל נבילות וטריפות ארפון לון מדידהון אינון אכלין.

(h) They told R. Chaninah about it and asked him if they could move the body (because of respect for the dead). He said to them, "The pasuk states (Shemos 22:30), "And you shall be to me holy men and you shall not eat Tereifah meat of the field; you shall throw it to the dogs". This man stole from the dogs and fed Jews Neveilos and Tereifos. Leave the dogs, as they are eating from that which is deservedly theirs.

חד בר נש הוה ליה חד גרב מגלי בערובת צומא רבא אזל בעי למישפכיה א"ל חבריה אייתי ואנא שתי ליה א"ל מגלי הוה א"ל מריה דיומא קאים לא חשב למישתי לא אספק מיטעם עד דאיתחלחל .

(i) A person had a barrel of wine that was left open overnight on Erev Yom Kippur. He wanted to pour it away. His friend said, "Give me the wine and I will drink it". The owner replied, "It was left open overnight!" The friend said, "Give it to me and I will drink it and the Master who told us to eat and drink on Erev Yom Kippur will stand up to protect me." He tasted it and before he had even thought about finishing it, the venom spread throughout his body and killed him.

ר' ירמיה בשם רבי חייה בר בא כל אירסים מעלים חטטין ושל נחש ממית.

(j) (R. Yirmiyah citing R. Chiya bar Ba): All venoms cause boils except for a snake's venom that kills.

רבי חייה אמר אין נשאלין על הגילוים.

(k) (R. Chiya): One does not even need to respond to one who asks if it is permitted to drink wine left uncovered as it is certainly prohibited since it is life threatening.

רבי ירמיה בעא קומי רבי זעירא מריה דשמועתא (אישאיל ליה) מתנמנם (הוה)

(l) Question (R. Yirmiyah): (He asked R. Zeira who had experienced such a case, as the Gemara will bring - according to the opinion earlier that if a person slept near wine that was left uncovered, it is still prohibited); what if the person was only dozing?

רבי זעירא הוה יתיב אכיל ברמשא איטפי בוצינא [והיה דמך] ייב ידיה על תומנתא אדלקין בוצינא אשכחון אהן שפיפונא שהוא דומה לשערה כריך על תומנתא.

(m) R. Zeira was sitting and eating at night. The candle went out and R. Zeira began to fall asleep. He put his hand on a measuring utensil called a Tumnasa (1/8th) to check if there was a snake. They lit the candle and found a snake similar to a hair, that was wrapped around the utensil.

אמר ליה רשיעא לא הוינא זהיר לך.

(n) (R. Zeira to the snake): You Evil One! If I had not been careful to place my hand on the utensil, you would have gone in and drank. (This shows that a snake is not afraid of a dozing person.)

אמר רבי אמי צריכין אנן חששין על מה דברייתא חששין

(o) (R. Ami): We must be careful of those things that people are careful from, (even if there is no written source for it)...

אסור למיתן פריטין גו פומה

1. Don't put money in one's mouth (lest it have on it germs of a sick person and the sickness will be transferred to him).

פיתתא תחות בי שיחייא

2. Don't put bread under the armpit (because it is a dirty place).

תבשילא תותי ערסא

3. Don't put food under a bed (because 'Ruach Ra'ah' - evil spirit will rest on it.)

ולמיצע סכינא גו איטרוגא וסכינא גו פוגלא.

4. Don't insert a knife into an Esrog or a radish (as it is not visible and someone might come and sit on it and be stabbed).

אמר רבי יוסי בי רבי בון כל זיעה דנפקה מבר נשא סם המות היא חוץ מזיעת הפנים.

(p) (R. Yosi bei R. Bun): All sweat that comes from a person is poison, except for the sweat of the face.

אמר רבי ינאי אין קטה קטה שיחור ואין אובד אובד מרגלין.

(q) (R. Yanai): One who wishes to endanger himself by consuming something that might have been left exposed overnight, his gain (from consuming it) is (small) like a coal. And if he loses, the loss is as (great as) a diamond.

רבי יונתן כי הוה בר נש שאיל ליה אמר ליה ערבא דנפשך אנא.

(r) When people would ask R. Yonasan a question about the laws of uncovered items, he would tell them, "Am I a guarantor for you (that I need to warn you not to put yourselves in danger?" He would avoid answering the question.)

אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אילו ללודין זבינת גרמך זבינתה גרמך בדמים יתירין וכא בדמין קלילין.

(s) (R. Shimon ben Lakish): If you would sell yourself to the cannibalistic people of Lud, you would only do it for a lot of money. But here, when an item might have been left uncovered, you are prepared to endanger yourselves for a small gain!

רבי אסי רבי יוחנן בשם בן בתירה יין נסך שנפל לבור ימכר כולו לנכרי חוץ מדמי יין נסך שבו

(t) (R. Asi/ R. Yochanan citing Ben Beseirah): If Yayin Nesech fell into a pit of wine, that entire mixture should be sold to a gentile, aside from the value of the Yayin Nesech.

רבי אסי בשם רבי יוחנן סתם יינו של נכרי אסור ואינו מטמא הפקידו אצלו אסור בשתייה ומותר בהנאה.

(u) (R. Asi citing R. Yochanan): Stam wine (wine about which it is unknown whether it was used for idolatry) of an idolater is prohibited but it does not make things tameh (like actual Yayin Nesech). If a Jew deposited his wine with an idolater, it may not be drank but it is permitted to benefit from it (such as by selling it to a gentile and keeping the money).

רבי זעירא בעא קומי רבי יסא מה במייחד

(v) Question (R. Zeira to R. Yasa): May one derive benefit only when a corner was designated for it to be placed, or even without that?

א"ל במפקיד.

(w) Answer (R. Yasa): Even without.

אתא רבי אבהו בשם רבי יוחנן שלש יינות הן שראה נכרי מנסכו וודאי דעבודת (כו"ם)[כוכבים] מטמא טומאה חמורה כשרץ. סתם יינו של נכרי אסור ואינו מטמא הפקידו אצלו בחותם אחד אסור בשתייה ומותר בהנאה.

(x) (R. Abahu citing R. Yochanan: There are three categories of wine - A) if one saw an idolater using it for idolatry, like an idol itself, it has a high level of tumah like a Sheretz (creeping thing) that brings tumah to one who touches it but not to one who carries it. B) Stam wine of idolaters is prohibited to derive benefit from, but they did not give it the status of tameh. C) If a Jew deposited his wine with an idolater, if it was sealed with only one seal, it may not be drank but one may derive benefit from it.

אמר רבי ירמיה קומי רבי זעירא חמי מה מר לא מר אלא בחותם הא בלא חותם אסור בשתייה ובהנייה

(y) Question (R. Yirmiyah to R. Zeira): Examine the words of R. Abahu - he only said that it is permitted to derive benefit from deposited wine when there is one seal, but without it, both drinking and deriving benefit are prohibited. (This is a question against R. Yasa who permitted deriving benefit even if there was no seal.)

הורי רבי לעזר במייחד והוה ר' זעירא חדי בה.

(z) R. Elazar ruled that if a person deposited wine with an idolater and he designated a place for it and the Jew was given the key to the place or there was a seal on the wine, it is permitted to then derive benefit from it, but without designating a place, it is prohibited. R. Zeira was happy with that ruling (as R. Elazar was assumed to have received it from R. Yochanan and it answered the earlier question).

OTHER D.A.F. RESOURCES ON THIS DAF