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(a) Based on the same Pasuk, Chazal also forbid looking at the colored clothes of a woman - because it will remind one of the wearer, whose looks are enhanced by them.
(b) They include in the same prohibition (all of these even if one was covered with eyes like the Mal'ach ha'Ma'ves [see Iyun Ya'akov]) - watching animals, beast and birds breeding (all of these even if one was covered with eyes like the Mal'ach ha'Ma'ves [see Iyun Ya'akov]).
(c) When a person is on his deathbed, the Mal'ach ha'Ma'ves (who is full of eyes) - is standing at the head of his bed, holding a drawn sword (with a drop of poison on the tip).
(d) When the dying man sees him - he shudders and opens his mouth, upon which the Mal'ach ha'Ma'ves tosses in the poison.
(e) The Mal'ach ha'Ma'ves' poison has the triple effect - of killing the person, causing his body to become putrid and his face to turn yellow.
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(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel - forbids looking at the colored clothes of a woman even when they are hanging on the wall (or on the washing-line).
(b) Rav Papa restricts this prohibition to where one actually knows the owner of the clothes. Rava proves this from the Lashon of the Beraisa 've'Lo be'Bigdei Tzeva shel Ishah' - since the Tana ought otherwise to have written - 've'Lo be'Vigdei Tziv'onin' (which are only worn by women).
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(a) Rav Chisda also permits looking at a woman's new clothes that she has not worn before. Even if she has however - he confines the prohibition to colored clothes which are particularly pretty and less common, but precludes plain, white ones.
(b) We refute Rav Chisda's proof from a tailor who fixes women's dresses (and who is bound to look at the article of clothing that he is repairing) - on the grounds that a tailor is different, inasmuch as he is too immersed in his work to be concerned with other thoughts.
(c) And we support this with a statement of Rav Yehudah - who permits an animal farmer to positively assist two animals to breed, even though he needs to watch what he is doing ...
(d) ... because he is involved in his work, and is too busy to become involved in forbidden thoughts.
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(a) The Mal'ach ha'Ma'ves told Shmuel's father - that were it not for the aspect of human dignity, he would slit the dying person's throat like one does to an animal.
(b) We reconcile this statement with what we just learned (that it is the Mal'ach ha'Ma'ves poison that kills a person - by attributing what he told Shmuel's father he would do to the drop of poison on his sword (and not to the sword itself).
(c) The Beraisa which attributes the putrid smell of a corpse to the drop of poison from the Mal'ach ha'Ma'ves' sword, supports a statement by Rebbi Chanina bar Kahana, who advises someone who wants to prevent his dead relative's corpse from smelling - to turn him face downwards after his death (to enable the poison to run from his mouth).
(d) The Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "Ve'nishmarta mi'Kol Davar Ra" (that we quoted earlier) and that of "Ki Yih'yeh b'cha Ish asher Lo Yih'yeh Tahor Mikreh Laylah" - that to avoid becoming Tamei by night, one should not think unclean thoughts by day.
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(a) Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir in a Beraisa learns from here the chain of Midos that serves as the basis of the Seifer 'Mesilas Yesharim'. Torah he says, leads to Zehirus, which in turn, leads to Zerizus. 'Torah' means - both Torah-study per se, and a deeper understanding of the Mitzvos.
(b) Zehirus is the ability to overcome the urge to sin when the temptation arises - whereas Zerizus refers to the ability to foresee the impending temptation and to avoid it by avoiding the circumstances that lead up to it.
(c) Zerizus leads to Neki'us ... Perishus ... Taharah. Neki'us means clean of sin ...
1. ... Perishus - going 'Lif'nim mi'Shuras ha'Din' (beyond the letter of the law), and ...
2. ... Taharah' - a more refined level of 'Lif'nim mi'Shuras ha'Din'.
(d) Taharah leads to Kedushah - which leads to Anavah (humility), and Anavah to Yir'as Chet (fear of sin).
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(a) Yir'as Chet leads to 'Chasidus (piety).
(b) Chasidus leads to Ru'ach ha'Kodesh, and Ru'ach ha'Kodesh - to Techi'as ha'Meisim (the ability to revive the dead).
(c) Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir learns from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Az Dibarta be'Chazon la'Chasidecha" - that the highest level of attainment (that leads to Ru'ach ha'Kodesh) is Chasidus, as he explained.
(d) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi disagrees. In his opinion, the Pasuk Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ru'ach Hash-m Elokim Alai, Ya'an Mashach Hash-m Osi le'Basar Anavim" - teaches us that the highest level of attainment (that leads to Ru'ach ha'Kodesh) is - Anavah.
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(a) Rebbi Yehudah permits selling to a Nochri a tree, Shachas (fodder or unripe crops) and standing corn, provided that the latter undertakes to cut them down. Rebbi Meir - forbids it.
(b) Having presented the Machlokes in the case of ...
1. ... a tree, the Tana nevertheless finds it necessary to repeat it in the case of ripe standing corn - which the purchaser is in any event unlikely to leave in the ground for long, because, unlike a tree, it tends to deteriorate if left in the ground for too long. Consequently, we might have otherwise thought that Rebbi Meir will concede to Rebbi Yehudah there.
2. ... a tree and standing corn, he still needs to repeat it in the case of Shachas, where we might have thought that Rebbi Yehudah will concede to Rebbi Meir - because, unlike the other two (whose improvement is non-existent in the one case [as we explained] or not distinctly visible, in the other), Shachas visibly improves if it is left in the ground.
3. ... Shachas, he needs to repeat it in the case of the other two - because, by reverse logic, we might otherwise have thought that Rebbi Meir will agree with Rebbi Yehudah there.
(c) We ask whether Rebbi Yehudah's leniency extends to selling the Nochri an animal on condition that he agrees to Shecht it, or perhaps not - because, as opposed to the crops which are growing in somebody else's ground, the animal belongs entirely to him, good reason to suspect that he will not abide by his condition.
(d) We resolve the latter She'eilah from a Beraisa - where Rebbi Yehudah specifically permits selling a Nochri an animal on condition that he Shechts it.
Index to Review Questions and Answers for Maseches Avodah Zarah