1)PEOPLE HEADING TO IDOLATRY
(a)(Mishnah): One may not do business with people heading to serve idolatry.
(b)(Shmuel): One may not do business with a Nochri heading to idolatry, because he will thank the idolatry;
1.One may do business with a Nochri returning. He already served, and he will not do anything more.
2.One may do business with a Yisrael heading to idolatry. Perhaps he will not go;
3.One may not do business with a Yisrael returning. Perhaps he will return to the idolatry.
(c)Question (Beraisa): One may not do business with a Yisrael going to or returning from idolatry.
(d)Answer (Rav Ashi): The Beraisa discusses a Mumar. When he heads to idolatry, he will surely complete his journey.
(e)(Beraisa): One may do business with a Nochri heading to or returning from a fair;
1.One may do business with a Yisrael heading to a fair, but not with a Yisrael returning.
2.Question: Presumably, it is forbidden when a Yisrael returns because we are concerned lest his money came from selling idolatry. We should also be concerned about a Nochri!
3.Answer: We assume that the Nochri sold a garment or wine (not of idolatry).
4.Question: We should also assume that the Yisrael sold a garment or wine!
5.Answer: If so, he would have sold it here, rather than at the fair.
(f)(Mishnah): One may do business with someone returning (from idolatry).
(g)(Reish Lakish): This is only if he is alone. If a group returns, it is forbidden, lest they will go back to the idolatry.
2)KELIM OF NOCHRIM
(a)(Mishnah - R. Meir): A pouch or bottle of a Nochri...
(b)Version #1 - Rashi - (Beraisa): If a (leather) pouch of a Nochri, if it is new (wine was not put in for an extended time) and has no pitch, it is permitted (since leather does not absorb much). If it is old or has pitch, it is forbidden.
(c)Version #2 - Tosfos - (Beraisa): A pouch of a Nochri from which the pitch was removed is permitted (after scrubbing, because wine is not left in it for a long time);
1.If it has pitch, even if it looks new, it is forbidden (lest it was used once, but we cannot tell. Therefore one must Kasher it with boiling water.) (end of Version #2)
2.If a Nochri melted pitch in it and put in wine and a Yisrael supervised (when making the pouch), we are not concerned (lest the Nochri was Menasech the wine).
3.Question: If the Nochri put in wine, the presence of the Yisrael does not help at all!
4.Answer #1 (Rav Papa): It means, if a Nochri melted pitch in it and a Yisrael put in wine and a second Yisrael supervised, we are not concerned.
i.Question: Why is a second Yisrael needed?
ii.Answer: The Yisrael putting in wine is busy. Perhaps he will not notice if the Nochri is Menasech.
5.Answer #2 (Rav Zvid): Really, the Nochri put in wine; since the wine will enter the pitch and dry up, like water used to knead mud, we are not concerned for it.
(d)(Rav Papi): We learn from Rav Zvid that if a Nochri puts wine in a Keli full of salt (Rashi; Tosfos - the place where they evaporate sea-water, to get salt), it is permitted.
(e)Objection (Rav Ashi): Rav Zvid's case is different. There the wine is lost, but here it gives taste to the salt!
(f)Bar Edi stole flasks of Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef. He put wine in them, and later returned them.
1.R. Yirmeyah: In such a case, R. Ami ruled that one should fill them with water for three days and pour it out.
2.(Rava): After every 24 hours, he must pour out the water and put in new water.
(g)Assumption: This is only if Nochri wine was put in Kelim of a Yisrael (he used it first, so the initial, primary absorptions are of permitted liquids), but this would not help for Kelim first used by Nochrim (perhaps the primary absorptions were forbidden).
(h)(Rejection - Ravin): This helps even for Kelim first used by Nochrim.
(i)(Rav Acha brei d'Rava): This is only for flasks (Rashi - because leather does not absorb very much; Tosfos - because wine is not normally stored there for a long time), but not for bottles.
(j)Rejection (Rav Ashi): This is even for bottles.
(k)(Beraisa): If a Nochri's bottle was never used and never had pitch (Rashi; Tosfos - the pitch was removed), it is permitted;
1.If it was used or has (Rashi - or once had) pitch, it is forbidden.
2.If a Nochri put wine in it, a Yisrael may put water in it (Tosfos ha'Rosh - and the water is permitted; Rashi - three times for 24 hours, to Kasher it);
3.If a Nochri put wine in it, a Yisrael may put brine or Muryas in it. (Tosfos' text - if a Nochri put wine in it, and a Yisrael put brine or Muryas in it, a Yisrael may now put wine in it.)
(l)Question: May a Yisrael may put brine or Muryas in it l'Chatchilah?
(m)Answer (Rav Zvid bar Oshaya): If one buys new Kelim from a Nochri, he may put wine in them;
1.If the Kelim are old, he may put brine or Muryas in it l'Chatchilah.
(n)Question (R. Yehudah Nesi'ah): If one put the Kelim in a furnace and fired them, what is the law?
(o)Answer (R. Ami): Even brine annihilates the absorptions, and all the more so fire!
(p)Support (R. Yochanan): If one put Kelim of a Nochri in a furnace, once the pitch on the inside (melts and) drips out, they are permitted.
(q)(Rav Ashi): One need not wait for the pitch to drip out. Once it becomes soft, they are permitted.
(r)(Rav Acha or Ravina): One may not Kasher them by putting burning chips of wood inside.
(s)(The other of Rav Acha and Ravina): One may Kasher them in this way.
1.The Halachah is, this may not be done.
3)KELIM OF NOCHRIM (cont.)
(a)Question: May a Yisrael put beer (Tosfos - or other cold liquids, other than wine) in a Nochri's Keli?
(b)Answer #1 (Rav Nachman and Rav Yehudah): No.
(c)Answer #2 (Rava): Yes.
(d)Ravina permitted R. Chiya brei d'Rav Yitzchak to put beer in a Nochri's Keli. He mistakenly put in wine.
1.Still, Ravina did not decree against putting beer in. This was a chance mistake, and we are not concerned lest it happen again.
(e)Rav Yitzchak bar Bisna had a Keli of dung (in which Yayin Nesech had been put). He put water in it (three times for 24 hours) and put it in the sun. It broke.
1.R. Aba: Chachamim did not say to put it in the sun. You caused your own loss.
(f)(Rav Yusna): Kelim of Neser can never be Kashered (Rashba; Ramban - one must wait 12 months to use them).
1.(R. Yosi bar Avin): Neser is the ground from which alum (a white powder) is taken.
(g)The household of Parzak, who was second to the king, took flasks, put wine in them, and later returned them.
1.Rav Yehudah: Wine is not stored in these for extended periods. It suffices to wash and scrub them with water.
(h)(Rav Avira): Nochri barrels made from red earth do not absorb much. It suffices to wash and scrub them with water.
(i)(Rav Papi): For earthenware Kelim of Bei Michsi (a place where the earth earth is hard), it suffices to wash and scrub them with water, for they do not absorb much.
(j)(Rav Asi): (Earthenware) cups (in which a Nochri drank wine) are forbidden;
(k)(Rav): They are permitted.
(l)Version A (Rashi) - Version #1: If the Nochri drank from them the first time, all agree that they are forbidden. They argue in a case that a Yisrael drank the first time, and a Nochri drank the second time;
1.Version #2: If the Nochri drank from them the first or second time, all agree that they are forbidden. They argue in a case that a Yisrael drank the first two times, and a Nochri drank the third time. (end of Version #2)
2.The Halachah is, if the Nochri drank from them the first or second time, they are forbidden. If he did not drink until the third time, they are permitted.
(m)Version B (Tosfos) - Version #1: If they were rinsed once, all agree that they are forbidden. They argue in a case that they were rinsed twice.
1.Version #2: If they were rinsed twice, all agree that they are forbidden. They argue in a case that they were rinsed three times. (end of Version #2)
2.The Halachah is, if they were rinsed twice, they are forbidden. If they were rinsed three times, they are permitted.
(n)(Rav Zvid): If Klei Kunya (earthenware Kelim plated with lead (Rashi) or glass (Tosfos)) of Nochrim are white or black, they are permitted;
1.If they are Yarok, they are forbidden, for they (Rashi - contain earth from which alum is taken, and) absorb greatly. (Note - most Meforshim say that Stam 'Yarok' is yellow. Some say that it is green.)
2.If they have cracks, in every case they are forbidden.
(o)(Mereimar): Klei Kunya of Nochrim, whether black or white or Yarok, are permitted.
(p)Question: Why is the law (of Klei Kunya) different regarding Chametz on Pesach? (We first explain the law regarding Chametz.)
1.Question: May Kunya Kelim (that were used with Chametz) be used on Pesach?
i.If they are Yarok, they absorb, so surely they are forbidden. We ask about white or black Kelim;
ii.If they have cracks, they absorb, so they are forbidden.We ask about smooth Kelim.
2.Answer (Mereimar): The outer walls give off moisture. This shows that they absorb, so they are forbidden.
3.Question: Why are they (permanently) forbidden?
4.Answer: The Torah testified that absorptions in earthenware never leave the walls. ("U'Chli Cheres Asher Tevushal Bo Yishaver" - if they could be Kashered, there would be no need to break them.)