BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
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[76a - 40 lines; 76b - 22 lines]
AVODAH ZARAH 76 (21 MarCheshvan) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmat Harav Moshe Zrihen ben Rachel, Dayan in Marrakech, Morocco, by Dr. Alain Bitton of Geneva, Switzerland.
1) [line 3] V'IDACH? - And the other opinion? (How does the opinion that maintains that Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam is forbidden learn the verse that forbids the utensils of Nochrim? Perhaps the verse forbids only utensils on the same day that the Nochrim used them, when the absorbed food is not Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam, and on the next day, when the absorbed food is Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam, it is indeed permitted by the Torah (thus refuting the opinion that Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam is Asur)! The Gemara answers that this opinion holds that even the food absorbed on that day is slightly spoiled, and therefore we learn from the verse that Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam is nevertheless Asur.)
2a) [line 9] HETEIRA BALA - it absorbed permitted food items (the Kodshim were permitted to be eaten when they were absorbed into the utensil)
b) [line 9] ISURA BALA - it absorbed forbidden food items (the food of Nochrim was forbidden when it was absorbed into the utensil)
3) [line 10] ISURA KA PALIT - it is expelling a forbidden food item (NOSAR)
(a) If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref." - "It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day, and anything that remains until the third day shall be burned in fire" (Vayikra 19:6; see Background to Shevuos 3:11).
(b) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Nosar b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Nosar is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #215).
4) [line 12] SHETIFAH U'MERIKAH - purged and rinsed in water
The Torah teaches that a utensil in which meat of the Korban Chatas was cooked must be kashered before it may be used for cooking other foods. The normal method of kashering a non-kosher utensil is used (for example, if the utensil was used on the fire, then Libun must be used). However, it is also necessary to perform "Shetifah and Merikah" for such a utensil used with the meat of Kodshim. The Torah states, "An earthenware utensil in which it (the meat of the Korban) was cooked must be broken (since it cannot be kashered), and if in a copper vessel it was cooked, then [that vessel must be] purged and rinsed in water" (Vayikra 6:21). The Torah requires that a utensil used for Kodshim not only be kashered, but that it also be purged and rinsed in water.
5) [line 14] "YAGID ALAV REI'O" - "The noise (Re'o) of the storm tells of it..." (Iyov 36:33) - Abaye interprets this verse as saying, "His companion (Re'o) will testify about it," as he proceeds to explain.
6) [line 17] B'IDACH ACHARISI - [teach all of the requirements in one Mishnah, and then you can teach one of the requirements] in the other [Beraisa].
7) [line 21] SHELAMIM
(a) A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b) Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(c) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for two days and the intervening night.
8) [line 22] NOSAR
See above, entry #3.
9) [line 22] CHATAS (CHATAS BEHEMAH)
(a) If a person commits a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he would be Chayav Kares if he would have committed it b'Mezid (intentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas. He brings a female goat or female sheep as his Korban Chatas. Since it is one of the Kodshei Kodashim (the highest sanctity of sacrifices), it may be slaughtered only in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah) and confesses his sin.
(b) The Eimurim (certain fats and innards; see Background to Yevamos 7:8) are cast into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.
(c) The Kohanim eat the rest of the meat of the Chatas in the Azarah, on the day that it is offered and the following night.
10) [line 23] KI MEVASHEL BAH HA'IDNA CHATAS HEVEI NOSAR - when one cooks in it (the pot) now the meat of a Chatas, it becomes Nosar [tomorrow]! (See above, entry #3.)
11) [line 24] KI HADAR MEVASHEL BAH L'MACHAR O SHELAMIM O CHATAS - when one again cooks in it (the pot) tomorrow the meat of Shelamim or Chatas
12) [line 25] KA PALIT NOSAR D'CHATAS D'HA'IDNA B'CHATAS U'SHELAMIM DEL'MACHAR - the pot expels the Nosar of today's Chatas into the Chatas and Shelamim [that will be cooked in the pot] tomorrow!
13) [line 27] AMREI LO, TZERICHA - they said that no, it is necessary (that is, our answer does apply, but in the follow case)
14) [line 27] D'CHI MEVASHEL BAH CHATAS HA'IDNA - when one cooks in it the meat of a Chatas now
15) [line 28] HADAR MEVASHEL BAH HA'IDNA SHELAMIM - one cooks again in it now (the same day) the meat of Shelamim
16) [line 29] D'CHATAS DEL'MACHAR U'SHELAMIM D'ESMOL BA'HADEI HADADEI KA SHALIM ZIMNAIHU - for the Chatas of tomorrow and the Shelamim of yesterday together complete their allotted times. (That is, the cooking of the Shelamim after the Chatas expels the absorbed Chatas from the pot, so that the following day, there is no Nosar in the pot when tomorrow's Chatas is cooked in it; the Shelamim in the pot remains permitted the following day, since the meat of Shelamim is eaten for two days.)
17) [line 30] V'HADAR MEVASHEL SHELAMIM DEL'MACHAR - and then one cooks (in the pot) tomorrow's Shelamim
18a) [line 32] HAI KARID - (O.F. trestrest) [the absorbed, prohibited food of] this one (the pot of a Nochri) becomes deeply imbedded (in the walls of the pot, and thus the pot needs Libun in order to be permitted for a Jew to use. This is because the Nochri's pot is not used daily on a consistent basis. In contrast, the pots used for Kodshim are used many times each day, and thus they need only to be immersed in boiling water (Hag'alah) to expel the prohibited food particles.)
b) [line 32] HAI LO KARID - [the absorbed, prohibited food of] this one (the pot used for Kodshim) does not become deeply imbedded (in the walls of the pot; see above)
19) [line 36] LO ISEI L'ISURA B'EINEI - [at the time that the particles absorbed in the pot become forbidden because of Nosar,] the prohibited item is not physically observable (in a tangible state; therefore, the Isur is not as severe, and Hag'alah suffices to permit the vessel to be used)
20) [line 37] AD SHE'TASHIR KELIPASAN - until it sheds its outer surface area
21) [line 38] YOREH - a cauldron
22) [last line] DUDA - a boiler
23) [last line] AHADER LEI GEDANFA D'LISHA A'PUMA - he surrounded the mouth [of the boiler] with a rim of dough (so that the boiling water would collect and pass over the edge of the boiler)
24) [line 4] K'VOL'O KACH POLTO - (lit. like it absorbed, it expels)
The principle of "k'Vol'o Kach Polto" means that food particles that become absorbed in the walls of a utensil can be expelled from the walls of the utensil by using the same means that was used in their absorption. For example, if a prohibited food was cooked in a pot by boiling, in order to expel the food particles one must immerse the pot in boiling water. This is a fundamental principle in the laws of "Isur v'Heter."
25a) [line 4] MAH BOL'O B'NITZOTZOS - just as it absorbed through splattering of drops
b) [line 4] AF POLTO B'NITZOTZOS - so, too, it expels through splattering of drops
26) [line 6] NO'ATZAH - one must imbed it into the ground
27) [line 9] GUMOS - indentations or dips (in which prohibited food particles could get stuck)
28) [line 13] SHEVOR MALKA - King Shapur II, the king of Persia, who ruled 309-379 CE, during the Sassanid Dynasty
29) [line 14] PASAK ACHAL - he cut a piece and ate it
30) [line 14] PASAK V'HAV LEI L'VATI BAR TUVI - he cut a piece and gave to Bati bar Tuvi
31) [line 15] DATZAH - he stuck it into the ground
32) [line 16] PASAK HAV LEI L'MAR YEHUDAH - he cut a piece and gave to Mar Yehudah
33) [line 17] VEHA'HU GAVRA LAV BAR YISRAEL HU?! - and is that person (i.e. me) not also a Jew (that you feed him a prohibited item)?!
34) [line 18] MAR, KIM LI B'GAVEI - the master (Mar Yehudah), I know him well (and I know that he would not eat anything prohibited)
35) [line 19] IDKAR - remember
36) [line 20] B'URTA - at night
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