[54a - 35 lines; 54b - 48 lines]
1a)[line 1]"[לָכֵן בְּזֹאת יְכֻפַּר עֲוֹן יַעֲקֹב, וְזֶה כָּל פְּרִי הָסִר חַטָּאתוֹ;] בְּשׂוּמוֹ כָּל אַבְנֵי מִזְבֵּחַ כְּאַבְנֵי גִיר מְנוּפָּצוֹת, לֹא יָקוּמוּ אֲשֵׁרִים וְחַמָּנִים""B'SUMO KOL AVNEI MIZBE'ACH K'AVNEI GIR MENUPATZOS, LO YAKUMU ASHERIM V'CHAMANIM"- "[Therefore, with this the iniquity of Yaakov will be atoned...] when he makes all the stones of the altar like crushed hail stones, and Asheirah trees and sun-idols will no longer rise up" (Yeshayah 27:9).
b)[line 2]גירGIR- (O.F. gresle) hail
2)[line 6]נעבדNE'EVAD- [an object that becomes prohibited for use by being] worshipped
3a)[line 6]בשוגגSHOGEG- unintentionally
b)[line 7]במזידMEZID- intentionally
c)[line 7]באונסONES- against his will; involuntarily
d)[line 7]ברצוןRATZON- willingly (this is the same as "Mezid" (entry #3b above) as RASHI explains)
4)[line 8]דאנסANAS- he [took by] force
5)[line 11]אונס, רחמנא פטריהONES, RACHMANA PATREI- the Torah did not make a person liable for Ones, for an act beyond his control
6)[line 13]"[וְ]לֹא תָעָבְדֵם""[V']LO SA'AVDEM"- "[and] do not worship them" (Shemos 23:24)
7)[line 14]"וָחַי בָּהֶם" ולא שימות בהם"VA'CHAI BAHEM" V'LO SHE'YAMUS BAHEM- the Torah commands, "He shall live in them (the Mitzvos)" (Vayikra 18:5), which implies that he shall not die because of them, but rather he should transgress in order to save his life (except for the sins of Giluy Arayos, Shefichus Damim, and Avodah Zarah - see Sanhedrin 74a)
8)[line 15]"וְלֹא תְחַלְּלוּ אֶת שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי""V'LO SECHALELU ES SHEM KODSHI"- "You shall not desecrate My holy Name" (Vayikra 22:32).
9)[line 16]הא כיצדHA KEITZAD- how is this so (how are we to reconcile the two contradictory verses concerning whether one must give up his life when being forced to serve Avodah Zarah)?
10a)[line 17]בצנעאB'TZIN'A- in private
b)[line 17]בפרהסיאB'FARHESYA- in public (this answer follows the opinion of Rebbi Yishmael, Sanhedrin 74a)
11)[line 19]בשעת הגזרהBI'SHE'AS HA'GEZERAH- during the time of the decree (of the Nochrim forbidding, by penalty of death, Jews from observing the Torah)
12)[line 22]ישראל מומרYISRAEL MUMAR- a Jewish apostate, a person who does not keep the laws of the Torah
13)[line 25]שניסך לעבודת כוכבים יין (על) [בין] קרניהNISECH L'AVODAS KOCHAVIM YAYIN (AL) [BEIN] KARNEHA- he poured a libation of wine between its horns to the idol [that was placed on top of the animal]
14)[line 32]כבר תרגמה רב הונא לשמעתיך בבבלKEVAR TIRGEMAH RAV HUNA LI'SHEMA'ATICH B'VAVEL- Rav Huna has already taught your teaching in Bavel
15)[line 33]רבוצהREVUTZAH- lying down
16)[line 34]כיון ששחט בה סימן אחדKEIVAN SHE'SHACHAT BAH SIMAN ECHAD- once he has cut (while slaughtering the animal) a single Siman. There are two "Simanim," or parts of the animal that must be sliced through when performing Shechitah: the Kaneh (trachea) and the Veshet (esophagus).
17)[line 5]כיון דעבד בהו מעשה, איתסרו להוKEIVAN D'AVAD BEHU MA'ASEH ITSERU LEHU- once he did an action to them (the holy vessels used in the Beis ha'Mikdash), they were prohibited for them (from being used)
18a)[line 8]בורותBOROS- round pits or wells that are dug in the ground; cisterns
b)[line 8]שיחיןSHICHIN- narrow elongated ditches
c)[line 8]ומערותME'AROS- caves (usually leading to a spring or water source)
19)[line 10]עשאן חליפין לעבודת כוכביםASA'AN CHALIPIN L'AVODAS KOCHAVIM- if he made them an exchange (lit. replacement) for an idol
20)[line 11]חליפי חליפיןCHALIPEI CHALIPIN- an exchange for the exchange
21)[line 13]"וְהָיִיתָ חֵרֶם כָּמוֹהוּ""V'HAYISAH CHEREM KAMOHU"- "... and you will become shunned like it (the item of Avodah Zarah)" (Devarim 7:26)
22)[line 13]כל שאתה מְהַיֶּה ממנוKOL SHE'ATAH MEHAYEH MIMENU- anything that you produce from it
24)[line 14]וכלאי הכרםKIL'EI HA'KEREM (KIL'AYIM)
(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Although the term "Kil'ayim" refers to many different types of forbidden mixtures (see Background to Kidushin 39:23a), only Kil'ei ha'Kerem is Asur b'Hana'ah.
(b)KIL'EI HA'KEREM refers to the prohibition of sowing vegetables or grains in a vineyard, as the Torah states, "לֹא תִזְרַע כַּרְמְךָ כִּלְאָיִם; פֶּן תִּקְדַּשׁ הַמְלֵאָה הַזֶּרַע אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרָע וּתְבוּאַת הַכָּרֶם" "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem" - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited" (Devarim 22:9). According to some Tana'im, even if one finds other crops growing in his vineyard and does not remove them, he transgresses this prohibition (Makos 21b). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to receive Malkus.
(c)The grapevines and the vegetables or grains that grow in a vineyard that has been planted with Kil'ei ha'Kerem are prohibited to be eaten. They must be burned, as the Torah states, "Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah...," which the Gemara translates as, "lest the produce (of that vineyard) have to be burned ('Tukad Esh')" (RAMBAM Hilchos Kil'ayim 5:7).
(d)Although it is forbidden to benefit from fruits of Kil'ei ha'Kerem, if one transgresses and sells the fruits, the money that he receives in return is not forbidden, as our Gemara teaches.
25)[line 15]וקידש בדמיהןV'KIDESH BI'DEMEIHEN- and he married a woman with the money
26)[line 16]ושביעיתSHEVI'IS (SHEVI'IS: TOFESES DAMAV)
(a)See Background to Avodah Zarah 50:19.
(b)When one sells fruit of Shevi'is, the Kedushah of the fruit is transferred to the money paid in exchange for it (the fruit itself remains Kadosh as well).
27)[line 17]שני כתובין הבאין כאחד אין מלמדיןSHNEI KESUVIN HA'BA'IN K'ECHAD EIN MELAMDIN - we do not learn from two subjects that express the same Halachah (lit. that come together)
(a)A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" - "father" in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated by that subject to other comparable subjects.
(b)If two verses express the same Halachah regarding two different subjects, we cannot apply the Halachah elsewhere through a Binyan Av. From the fact that the Torah found it necessary to repeat the law the second time, we may deduce that the Halachah is not meant to be applied automatically in all situations.
28)[line 18]"כִּי יוֹבֵל הִיא, קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם""KI YOVEL HI, KODESH TIHEYEH LACHEM"- "It is a Yovel year, it shall be holy to you" (Vayikra 25:12) - Even though the verse is referring to Yovel, the Gemara cites it with regard to fruits of Shevi'is because the laws of Yovel and Shevi'is are the same (RITVA).
29)[line 18]תופס את דמיוTOFES ES DAMAV- it takes hold of its money (the Kedushah of the item is transferred to the money paid in exchange for it)
30)[line 19]מה קדש תופס את דמיו ויוצא לחוליןMAH KODESH TOFES ES DAMAV V'YOTZEI L'CHULIN- just as the sanctity of an item of Hekdesh, when redeemed, takes hold of the money used to redeem it, while the item itself becomes Chulin (unsanctified)
31)[line 20]בהוייתה תהאB'HAVAYASAH TEHEI- in its state it shall remain
32)[line 21]מתבעריןMISBA'ARIN (BI'UR)
(a)See above, entry #28, Shevi'is.
(b)When each type of produce of Shevi'is is no longer available in the fields, there is an obligation to perform Bi'ur on it and on all of the items for which it was exchanged (Pesachim 52a). The Rishonim argue with regard to the definition of Bi'ur.
1.The Ramban (to Vayikra 25:7) writes that one is obligated to remove the items from his house and declare them Hefker (ownerless) such that they may be taken by any passerby. (One may later reacquire ownership of the produce.) If Bi'ur was not done at the right time, the produce becomes Asur b'Hana'ah mid'Rabanan.
2.According to the Rambam (Hilchos Shemitah 7:3), Bi'ur means to destroy the produce completely. At the time that it is no longer available in the fields, eating it becomes prohibited.
3.The Ra'avad (ibid.) rules that there are two types of Bi'ur. At the time that an item of produce becomes unavailable in the fields in a certain place, one must declare it Hefker (like the opinion of the Ramban). At the time that it becomes unavailable in all of Eretz Yisrael, one must destroy the produce completely (like the opinion of the Rambam).
33)[line 25]שאלו את הזקנים ברומיSHA'ALU ES HA'ZEKENIM B'ROMI- they (the philosophers) asked the Jewish elders in Rome
34)[line 25]אם אין רצונו בעבודת כוכבים, למה אינו מבטלה?IM EIN RETZONO B'AVODAS KOCHAVIM, LAMAH EINO MEVATLAH?- if it is not His will that idolatry exist, why does He not annul (i.e. destroy) it?
35a)[line 27]לחמהCHAMAH- sun
b)[line 27]וללבנהLEVANAH- moon
c)[line 27]ולכוכביםKOCHAVIM- stars
d)[line 27]ולמזלותMAZALOS- constellations
36)[line 30]פלוסופיןPILOSOFIN- philosophers
37)[line 35]סאהSE'AH- a measurement of volume equal to 6 Kabin (1 Se'ah = approximately 7.2, 8.29, or 14.4 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)
38)[line 39]שעושין סלע שלי פומביOSIN SELA SHELI PUMBI- they are making public My coin's mint
39)[line 45]שסרחה עליו מדינהSARCHAH ALAV MEDINAH- a country rebelled against him
40a)[last line]לאפיקיםAFIKIM- springs
b)[last line]ולגאיותGE'AYOS- glens