[53a - 45 lines; 53b - 52 lines]

1)[line 9] ?KEITZAD MEVATLAH?- how does he (an idolater) nullify it (an Avodah Zarah, e.g. an idol)?

2)[line 10]KATA- he cuts off

3a)[line 10] ROSH OZNAH- the top of its ear

b)[line 10] ROSH CHOTMAH- the tip of its nose

c)[line 11]PACHASAH- he crushed it with a hammer (even) without taking off any tangible substance (the Gemara explains that this specifically refers to the face of the idol)

4)[line 12] RAK B'FANEHA- he spit at its face

5)[line 12]HISHTIN- he urinated

6)[line 12]GERARAH- he dragged it [in the mud, to defame it]

7)[line 13]TZO'AH- feces

8)[line 14]MISHKENAH- he gave to his creditor as a surety

9)[line 17]"[ ] , , . ; , [ , ]""... V'HAYAH KI YIR'AV V'HISKATZAF V'KILEL B'MALKO... U'FANAH L'MA'ALAH. V'EL ERETZ YABIT V'HINEI TZARAH VA'CHASHECHAH..."- "[And they shall pass that way (relying on mortal kings - RASHI - or on Avodah Zarah - METZUDAS DAVID), greatly distressed and hungry;] and it shall come to pass, that when they shall be hungry, they will be enraged, and curse their king and their god, and look upward. And they shall look to the earth; and behold trouble and darkness, [dimness of anguish, and they shall be driven to darkness]" (Yeshayah 8:21-22).

10)[line 24] B'TZOREF OVED KOCHAVIM- [the argument between the Tana'im applies when the idolater gave the Avodah Zarah to] a Nochri metal smith

11)[line 28] NIR'IN DEVARAI- my words appear correct; i.e. (a) we do not tell an individual to follow my ruling, but we neither rebuke someone who rules according to my opinion nor revoke the results (RASHI to Eruvin 46b); (b) we tell an individual to follow my ruling, but this is not taught publicly. If someone rules according to the contradictory opinion, we do not even protest his decision (TOSFOS and RITVA to Eruvin ibid.)

12a)[line 29]L'CHAVLAH- (lit. to destroy it) to one who will eventually destroy it (i.e. a Jewish smith)

b)[line 30]L'OVDAH- (lit. to worship it) to one who will eventually worship it (i.e. a Nochri smith)

13)[line 39]GERUTA'OS- broken pieces of silver

14)[line 40] , IM AD SHE'LO NASAN MA'OS MASHACH, YACHZIR (KINYAN MESHICHAH / KINYAN KESEF / KINYAN ME'NOCHRI / KINYAN B'TA'US)

(a)When a person acquires an object, he must make a Ma'aseh Kinyan, a formal Halachically-binding act denoting his acquisition of the object, in order for the acquisition to be irrevocably binding. Depending on the object involved, different Kinyanim are used.

(b)Some Amora'im maintain that by Torah law, paying for the purchase of Metaltelin consummates a sale. This is known as "Kinyan Kesef." The Torah source for this Kinyan is the verse (referring to the redemption of Hekdesh) that states "... ... " "v'Yasaf... Kesef... v'Kam Lo" - "and he shall [pay]... the money and it shall be his" (Vayikra 27:19) (RASHI to Bava Metzia 48a DH Savar). Others specify the purchase of an Eved Ivri, a Jewish slave, as the source for this Kinyan: if it is possible to purchase a person himself with Kesef (Kidushin 22b, see Background to Bava Metzia 31:33a), one certainly may purchase a person's possessions with Kesef (RABEINU CHANANEL to Bava Metzia 47b). A third opinion maintains that since Kesef is the most common method of purchase specified by the Torah (it effects Kidushin and is Koneh land and slaves), the unqualified word "Kinyan" which is used with regard to Metaltelin must also be referring to Kesef (RITVA to Bava Metzia 48a).

(c)Other Amora'im maintain that the Torah does not recognize payment as a form of Kinyan for Metaltelin. Even those who subscribe to the first opinion, that Kesef is a form of Kinyan mid'Oraisa, agree that the Rabanan normally invalidated Kinyan Kesef for the purchase of Metaltelin. Therefore, according to both opinions, in practice even after one has paid for Metaltelin he must be Koneh them with Meshichah (see Background to Bava Metzia 44:5c:c; or Hagbahah, Mesirah or another form of Kinyan) in order to consummate the sale. Thus, in a sale in which currency is being paid for merchandise, the buyer's Meshichah (pulling towards his domain) of the merchandise consummates the sale. The seller's Meshichah of the currency that was paid for it does not.

(d)One practical difference between whether Kinyan Kesef is effective mid'Oraisa or not involves the Kinyan performed by a Nochri. The verse which discusses the Kinyan of Metaltelin (" " "Kanoh mi'Yad Amisecha" - Vayikra 25:14) excludes a Nochri, who is not "Amisecha," from that Kinyan. According to the opinion that Meshichah is Koneh mid'Oraisa for a Jew, a Nochri cannot be Koneh with Kinyan Meshichah but must be Koneh with Kesef. According to those who maintain that Kesef, and not Meshichah, is Koneh mid'Oraisa, a Nochri cannot be Koneh with Kinyan Kesef, but must be Koneh with Meshichah (Bechoros 13a).

15)[line 41] YOLICH L'YAM HA'MELACH- the benefit he receives from [selling] them "should go to Yam ha'Melach," i.e. it must be destroyed and he cannot claim his money from the Nochri

16)[line 44] LAVAH ALEHA- if he (the idolater) took a loan [from a Jewish smith] using the Avodah Zarah as collateral

17)[line 44] NAFLAH ALEHA MAPOLES- an avalanche fell upon it, a building collapsed upon it

18)[last line] GANVUHA LISTIN- robbers stole it

19)[last line] MEDINAS HA'YAM- a land overseas (i.e. a distant land)

53b----------------------------------------53b

20)[line 4] MID'LO KA MEFANI- since he is not trying to clear away [the rubble that is on top of it]

21)[line 6] HA MANCHAS- it is lying there (he notes the location)

22)[line 6] , KOL EIMAS D'VA'INA LAH, SHAKILNA LAH- whenever I need it, I can take it

23)[line 20] SHE'ZAKAF LEVEINAH- who stood up a brick [with intention to bow down to it]

24)[line 24] YERUSHAH HI LAHEM ME'AVOSEIHEM- it (the Land of Yisrael) is an inheritance to them (Bnei Yisrael) from their forefathers

25)[line 24] EIN ADAM OSER DAVAR SHE'EINO SHELO- a person cannot prohibit something that is not his (see Background to Avodah Zarah 52:34:c)

26)[line 29] SHELICHUSA DIDHU AVDEI- they (the Nochrim) performed the action of creating trees, etc. of Avodah Zarah for them (Bnei Yisrael)

27)[line 37] BIMOSIYA'OS SHEL MELACHIM- pedestals of kings (placed along the route of a king, upon which idols were set up when the king passed by)

28)[line 37] SHE'MA'AMIDIN OSAH- they are placed; stood up

29)[line 38] BEIS NIMROD- (lit. the house of Nimrod) the Tower of Bavel (see Sanhedrin 109a)

30)[line 40]BADRINHU- He scattered them

31)[line 44] , U'MELACHIM MANICHIN DERECH ZO, V'HOLCHIN B'DERECH ACHERES- and sometimes the kings do not use the planned route (lit. abandon this route), but go on another route

32)[line 44] YASIV A'BIMESA PEGIMA- was sitting on a broken Avodah Zarah pedestal

33)[line 47] , MAN YAHIV LAN ME'AFRA D'RAV U'SHMUEL U'MAL'INAN AININ- (a) who will give to us from the dust [from the graves] of Rav and Shmuel so that we could fill our eyes with it (as an expression of love and affection)! (ARUCH Erech Afar); (b) this is an expression that means, "Kevodam bi'Mekomam Munach" - "their honor (of Rav and Shmuel) lies in its proper place." That is, Rav and Shmuel are indeed great and their opinion carries weight, but in this case, bi'Mechilas Kevodam (begging their pardon), the Halachah does not follow their opinion (RAV GEDALYAH LIPSHITZ)

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