[51a - 49 lines; 51b - 51 lines]

1)[line 4]שחט לה חגבSHACHAT LAH CHAGAV- he slaughtered for it (i.e. for the sake of worshipping an idol) a locust

2a)[line 6]כעין זביחהK'EIN ZEVICHAH- an action that resembles the slaughtering of an animal [when offering a Korban]. This refers to an act that even slightly resembles the act of slaughtering (such as the breaking of a stick or the killing of a locust).

b)[line 7]כעין פניםK'EIN PENIM - an action that resembles one of the services performed inside [the Beis ha'Mikdash when offering a Korban].

(a)This refers to an act that is very similar to an act that is performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash.

(b)Actions that are performed to Korbanos in the Beis ha'Mikdash are prohibited mid'Oraisa to perform for any Avodah Zarah, whether these actions are the specific service of the Avodah Zarah or not (Sanhedrin 60b). They are Zevichah (slaughtering and offering a sacrifice), Haktarah (burning incense), Nisuch (pouring a libation), and Hishtachava'ah (bowing down to the Avodah Zarah).

3)[line 19]נעשה כמגדל עבודת כוכביםNA'ASEH KI'MEGADEL AVODAS KOCHAVIM- it is considered as if he is enlarging the actual Markulis Avodah Zarah itself (and the stones are not considered Tikroves at all)

4a)[line 27]מצא בראשוMATZA B'ROSHO- if one finds the structure of a Markulis Avodah Zarah with one of the following items on top of it (lit. on its head):

b)[line 27]כסותKESUS- an article of clothing

c)[line 27]ומעותMA'OS- coins

d)[line 28]כליםKELIM- utensils

5a)[line 28]פרכילי ענביםPARCHILEI ANAVIM- interwoven branches laden with clusters of grapes

b)[line 28]ועטרות של שבליםATAROS SHEL SHIBOLIM- wreaths made of stalks of grain

6a)[line 29]ויינותYEINOS- wines

b)[line 29]שמניםSHEMANIM- oils

c)[line 29]וסלתותSELATOS- fine flour

7)[line 29]וכל דבר שכיוצא בו קרב לגבי מזבחKOL DAVAR SHEKA'YOTZEI VO KAREV L'GABEI MIZBE'ACH- things the likes of which may be brought upon the Mizbe'ach of the Beis ha'Mikdash

8)[line 33]שבצרןBETZARAN- he cut them (the branches of grapes)

9)[line 34]בהמה בעלת מוםBEHEMAH BA'ALAS MUM - a blemished animal (BA'AL MUM)

The following is a list of blemishes that invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice (Vayikra 22:22-24, based partially on Rav Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah"). Although there is a dispute as to the precise meaning of the names of the Mumim, all of the blemishes are known through tradition (RAMBAM, Perush ha'Mishnah to Bechoros 7:2).

1.AVERES - blind (even in one eye)

2.SHAVUR - broken-limbed

3.CHARUTZ - gashed; this includes a perforated or split eyelid, nose or lip, or a gash anyplace where there is a bone

4.YABELES - warts

5.GARAV - mange, the animal equivalent of eczema

6.YALEFES - ringworm

7.SARU'A - an extra limb or an overgrown limb

8.KALUT - a missing limb or un-split hooves

9.MA'UCH - testicles crushed by hand

10.KATUS - testicles crushed by an implement

11.NATUK - testicles that are pulled loose

12.KARUS - severed testicles

10)[line 36]הוי בה רבאHAVI BAH RAVA- Rava asked a question about it (Rebbi Yochanan's statement)

11)[line 36]בדוקין שבעיןDOKIN SHEBA'AYIN

(a)See above, entry #9.

(b)"Dokin sheb'Ayin" (lit. eye's web, O.F. teile) refers to a thin film (cataract?) that develops due to an eye-disease which is considered to be a blemish, or, alternatively, a cut on the eyelids, that disqualifies an animal from being brought as a Korban, as the Torah states in Vayikra 21:20.

12a)[line 36]השתא לבני נח חזיא לגבוה בבמה דידהוHASHTA LI'VENEI NO'ACH CHAZYA L'GAVO'AH B'VAMAH DIDHU- Seeing as it is permitted for a Ben Noach to offer such an animal (with the Mum of Dokin sheb'Ayin) to HaSh-m on their Bamos (high places reserved for sacrifices),

b)[line 37]לעבודת כוכבים מיבעיא?L'AVODAS KOCHAVIM MIBA'YA?- there is no question that a Jew who offers such an animal to Avodah Zarah has transgressed the prohibition against serving Avodah Zarah. (Even though after Matan Torah, Dokin sheb'Ayin is a blemish that invalidates animals for sacrifices to HaSh-m, since the Jews used to be Benei Noach (for whom such an animal is fit even nowadays), they would be in the category of "Chotei Niskar" ("a sinner who benefits from his actions") because of their new status after Matan Torah, had the Halachah not ruled that they are liable for serving Avodah Zarah in this manner.)

13)[line 37]במחוסר אברMECHUSAR EVER (BENEI NOACH: MECHUSAR EVER)

(a)Benei Noach are prohibited from offering, as a Korban to HaSh-m, an animal that is missing a limb, as the verse states, "umi'Kol ha'Chai, mi'Kol Basar, Shenayim mi'Kol Tavi El ha'Teivah l'Hachayos Itach..." - "And from all living things, from all flesh, two of everything you shall bring into the ark to keep alive with you..." (Bereishis 6:19).

(b)This command to Noach teaches that the animals which he will, in the future, offer as Korbanos to HaSh-m must be fully alive - i.e. all of its limbs must be intact. Their idolatrous descendants adopted this precept into their own practices, and they do not offer to their idols an animal that is missing a limb.

14)[line 38]"וּמִכָּל הָחַי מִכָּל בָּשָׂר, שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל [תָּבִיא אֶל הַתֵּבָה לְהַחֲיֹת אִתָּךְ...]""UMI'KOL HA'CHAI, MI'KOL BASAR, SHENAYIM MI'KOL [TAVI EL HA'TEIVAH L'HACHAYOS ITACH...]"- see previous entry, (a)

15)[line 39]שחיין ראשי אברין שלהSHE'CHAYIN ROSHEI EVARIN SHELAH- that its Roshei Evarim (limb-tips) are whole

16)[line 40]טריפהTEREIFAH (TEREIFAH: TEREIFAH EINAH YOLEDES)

(a)A Tereifah is a person or an animal that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in his or its death within a year. The signs of a Tereifah are described in Chulin 42a et seq. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year - see Chulin 42a-b.)

(b)There is a dispute in the Gemara (Chulin 57b, and as mentioned here) whether or not a Tereifah is able to give birth.

17)[line 40]"[גַּם מֵעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם שִׁבְעָה שִׁבְעָה, זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה;] לְחַיּוֹת זֶרַע [עַל פְּנֵי כָל הָאָרֶץ]""... L'(HA)CHAYOS ZERA..."- "[Also birds of the air by seven pairs, male and the female,] to keep seed alive [upon the face of all the earth]" (Bereishis 7:3).

18)[line 42]"[וּמִכָּל הָחַי מִכָּל בָּשָׂר, שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל תָּבִיא אֶל הַתֵּבָה לְהַחֲיֹת] אִתָּךְ...""[UMI'KOL HA'CHAI, MI'KOL BASAR, SHENAYIM MI'KOL TAVI EL HA'TEIVAH L'HACHAYOS] ITACH..."- "[And from all living things, from all flesh, two of everything you shall bring into the ark to keep alive] with you..." (Bereishis 6:19) - The word "Itach" teaches that the animals that Noach was to bring into the ark with him were to be similar to him - i.e. fully healthy animals.

19)[line 43]תמים בדרכיו, וצדיק במעשיוTAMIM BI'DERACHAV V'TZADIK B'MA'ASAV- perfect in his ways and righteous in his deeds

20)[line 46]לצוותא בעלמאL'TZAVSA B'ALMA- just to have company

21)[line 46]סריסSARIS- an impotent (lit. castrated) animal

22)[line 47]"ולא יזבחו עוד את זבחיהם לשעירים [אשר הם זנים אחריהם חקת עולם תהיה זאת להם לדרתם]""V'LO YIZBECHU OD ES ZIVCHEIHEM LA'SE'IRIM..."- "And they shall no more offer their sacrifices to demons..." (Vayikra 17:7).

23)[line 48]"[השמר לך, פן תנקש אחריהם, אחרי, השמדם מפניך ופן תדרש לאלקיהם לאמר] איכה יעבדו הגוים האלה את אלקיהם [ואעשה כן גם אני]""... EICHAH YA'AVDU HA'GO'YIM..."- "[Take heed that you be not snared by following them (the nations in Eretz Kena'an), after they are destroyed from before you; and that you inquire not about their gods, saying,] 'How did these nations serve their gods? [that I may also do likewise']" (Devarim 12:30).

51b----------------------------------------51b

24a)[line 2]בשעת איסור הבמות / בשעת היתר הבמותSHE'AS ISUR HA'BAMOS / SHE'AS HETER HA'BAMOS (BAMAH GEDOLAH / BAMAH KETANAH / MIZBE'ACH / BEIS HA'MIKDASH)

(a)BAMAH - A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built (when the Mishkan was not in use), there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid or Bamah Ketanah) (see Insights to Pesachim 91:2).

(b)BAMAH GEDOLAH - Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamah Gedolah was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan stood before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamah Gedolah. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Gedolah or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time (Zevachim 117a).

(c)BAMAH KETANAH - Any person, even if he was not a Kohen, could build a Bamah Ketanah anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Ketanah.

(d)MIZBE'ACH - The Mishkan was built in Shiloh, a city in the portion of Efrayim, after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. A Mizbe'ach (altar) was built to replace the Bamos, and as long as the Mishkan stood in Shiloh, sacrificing on the Bamos was prohibited. The Tana'im argue as to whether this Mizbe'ach was a stone structure or whether it was the hollow wooden Mizbe'ach overlaid with copper that was constructed for the Mishkan in the desert, filled with stones (Zevachim 61b). The Mishkan stood in Shiloh for 369 years (Seder Olam Raba 11).

(e)BEIS HA'MIKDASH - The Beis ha'Mikdash is known as the "Beis Olamim," the "Eternal Dwelling," because once it was chosen, it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah. Once again the Bamos were prohibited, but this time permanently. The Mizbach ha'Chitzon (Outer Mizbe'ach), also known as the Mizbach ha'Olah (Mizbe'ach of the Korban Olah) of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. (For a description of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, see Background to Sukah 45:15.)

b)[line 2]בשעת איסור הבמות / בשעת היתר הבמותSHE'AS ISUR HA'BAMOS / SHE'AS HETER HA'BAMOS (HA'SHOCHET VEHA'MA'ALEH BA'CHUTZ)

(a)The Torah obligates a person to bring all Kodshim that are fit to be offered as sacrifices to the Beis ha'Mikdash, as it states in Vayikra 17:1-7. Besides the Mitzvas Aseh, there are Mitzvos Lo Sa'aseh prohibiting slaughtering them outside of the Azarah (Shechutei Chutz) and burning them or parts of them outside of the Azarah (Ha'ala'as Chutz). In addition, the Tana'im learn (Sanhedrin 34b) that casting the blood of a sacrifice outside of the Azarah is also prohibited. The punishment for transgressing these prohibitions is Kares (ibid. 17:9; SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #186), and the animal remains Asur b'Hana'ah (i.e. it is prohibited to derive any benefit from it).

(b)These Mitzvos prohibit sacrificing on a private altar (Bamah) during most periods in history; see the preceding entry.

25)[line 3]"ואל פתח אהל מועד לא הביאו [להקריב קרבן לה' לפני משכן ה' דם יחשב לאיש ההוא, דם שפך, ונכרת האיש ההוא מקרב עמו]""V'EL PESACH OHEL MO'ED LO HEVI'O..."- "And he does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, [to offer an offering to HaSh-m before the tabernacle of HaSh-m; blood shall be imputed to that man; he has shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people]" (Vayikra 17:4).

26)[line 5]"[השמר לך] פן תעלה עלתיך [בכל מקום אשר תראה]""... PEN TA'ALEH OLOSECHA..."- "[Take heed] that you offer not your burnt offerings [in every place that you see]" (Devarim 12:13).

27)[line 10]"למען אשר יביאו בני ישראל את זבחיהם אשר הם זבחים על פני השדה והביאם לה' [אל פתח אהל מועד אל הכהן וזבחו זבחי שלמים לה' אותם] ""L'MA'AN ASHER YAVI'U BENEI YISRAEL ES ZIVCHEIHEM ASHER HEM ZOVCHIM AL PENEI HA'SADEH, VE'HEVI'UM LASH-M..."- "In order that the people of Yisrael may bring their sacrifices, which they offer in the open field, that they may bring them to HaSh-m, [to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, to the Kohen; and offer them for peace offerings to HaSh-m]" (Vayikra 17:5).

28)[line 21]"ותראו את שקוציהם ואת גלליהם עץ ואבן כסף וזהב אשר עמהם""VA'TIR'U ES SHIKUTZEIHEM V'ES GILULEIHEM, ETZ VA'EVEN, KESEF V'ZAHAV ASHER IMAHEM"- "And you have seen their abominations, and their idols, wood and stone, silver and gold, which were among them" (Devarim 29:16).

29)[line 22]"[פסילי אלקיהם תשרפון באש] לא תחמד כסף וזהב עליהם [ולקחת לך פן תוקש בו כי תועבת ה' אלקיך הוא]""... LO SACHMOD KESEF V'ZAHAV ALEIHEM [V'LAKACHTA LACH...]"- "[The engraved images of their gods shall you burn with fire;] you shall not desire the silver or gold that is on them, [nor take it to you, lest you be snared by it, for it is an abomination to HaSh-m, your G-d]" (Devarim 7:25).

30)[line 23]דבר של נויDAVAR SHEL NOY- a decorative object

31)[line 27]בכיס קשורKIS KASHUR- a tied money-pouch

32)[line 28]בכסות מקופלתKESUS MEKUPELES- (O.F. pleiede) a folded garment

33)[line 29]דסחיפא ליה משכילתא ארישיהDI'SECHIFA LEI MASHKILTA A'REISHEI- [we are dealing with a case] where a goblet is upturned on top of it

34)[line 29]לפנים מן הקלקליןLIFNIM MIN HA'KALKALIN- within the curtains (that set apart the Avodah Zarah).

35)[line 31]נקטינןNAKTINAN- we have a tradition

36)[line 31]לפעורPE'OR- the name of an idol of Moav, worshipped by defecation and highly immoral practices (RAMBAM Hilchos Avodas Kochavim 3:2)

37)[line 32]פעורי מפערין קמיהPE'UREI MEFA'ARIN KAMEI- they defecate in front of it

38a)[line 34]גינהGINAH- a garden

b)[line 34]מרחץMERCHATZ- a bathhouse

39a)[line 34]שלא בטובהSHE'LO B'TOVAH- (a) for no payment (RASHI); (b) without acknowledging gratitude (RABEINU TAM)

b)[line 35]בטובהB'TOVAH- (a) for payment (RASHI); (b) with an acknowledgement of gratitude (RABEINU TAM)

40)[line 43]"אבד תאבדון את כל המקמות אשר עבדו שם הגוים [אשר אתם ירשים אתם את אלהיהם על ההרים הרמים ועל הגבעות ותחת כל עץ רענן]""ABED TE'ABDUN ES KOL HA'MEKOMOS ASHER AVDU SHAM HA'GO'YIM [... ES ELOHEHEM; AL HE'HARIM HA'RAMIM V'AL HA'GEVA'OS, V'SACHAS KOL ETZ RA'ANAN]"- "You shall completely destroy all of the places, where the nations which you shall possess served [their gods; upon the high mountains, and upon the hills, and under every leafy tree]" (Devarim 12:2).

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