BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
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[5a - 52 lines; 5b - 38 lines]
1) [line 1] KALECH ETZEL YACHID - go to [learn from] the individual (i.e. David ha'Melech, in order to learn that an individual who sinned can do Teshuvah and repent). ("Kalech" is a contraction of "Kaleh" - "stop," and "Lech" - "go" -- see RASHI to Chagigah 14a DH Kalech. According to the reading KELACH - "go, you," "Kelach" is a contraction of "Lecha" - "go," and "Lach" - "you" -- see RASHI to Shabbos 145b DH Kelach.)
2) [line 6] NEFISHEI RACHAMAIHU / ZECHUSAIHU - their [causes for] mercy/merits are abundant
3) [line 6] ALIMA - strong
4) [line 8] "... NE'UM DAVID BEN YISHAI U'NE'UM HA'GEVER HUKAM AL..." - "[These are the last words of David,] the word of David, son of Yishai, and the word the man who was set up on high..." (Shmuel II 23:1) - The Gemara reads the word "Al" as "Ol," burden (see next entry).
5) [line 10] SHE'HEKIM ULAH SHEL TESHUVAH - who established (through his own conduct) the burden of [the obligation for a sinner to do] Teshuvah, repentance
6) [line 13] "... V'HALACH LEFANECHA TZIDKECHA, KEVOD HASH-M YA'ASFECHA." - "... your righteousness will walk before you, and the glory of HaSh-m will gather you in." (Yeshayah 58:8)
7) [line 15] MELAPAFTO - enwraps (and clings to) him
8) [line 15] "YILAFESU ORCHOS DARKAM; YA'ALU VA'TOHU V'YOVEDU." - "They become enwrapped in their [dishonest] ways; they will go into nothingness and become lost." (Iyov 6:18)
9) [line 28] "ZEH SEFER TOLDOS ADAM..." - "This is the book of the generations of Adam..." (Bereishis 5:1)
10) [line 30] "V'LI MAH YAKRU RE'ECHA KEL; [MEH ATZMU ROSHEIHEM.]" - "How precious to me are Your friends, G-d; [how exalted are their heads.]" (Tehilim 139:17)
11) [line 31] AD SHE'YICHLU NESHAMOS SHEB'GUF - until [all] the souls that are in "Guf" will be born (lit. finished). Guf is the chamber in which the souls of all future Jews are kept; alt., Guf refers to the Pargod (Heavenly Curtain) that divides between the Shechinah and the angels (RASHI to Yevamos 63b; see also Insights there)
12) [line 32] "KI LO L'OLAM ARIV, V'LO LA'NETZACH EKTZOF, KI RU'ACH MI'LEFANAI YA'ATOF, U'NESHAMOS ANI ASISI." - "For not forever shall I argue, and not for eternity shall I be angry, because [of] the spirit that is before Me, and the souls that I have made." (Yeshayah 57:16)
13a) [line 34] PARSHAS YEVAMOS (YIBUM) - the section of the Torah (Devarim 25:5-10) that teaches the laws of Yibum.
If a married man dies childless and has brothers who survive him, his widow (or widows) may not remarry until one of the deceased husband's brothers performs Yibum (levirate marriage) or Chalitzah (levirate release) with the widow (or one of the widows) (see Background to Sanhedrin 53:13).
b) [line 34] PARSHAS NACHALOS - the section of the Torah (Bamidbar 27:6-11) that teaches the laws of inheritance
14) [line 35] AL TENAI - [those sections of the Torah were written] on condition (if the Jewish people sin, then those sections will take effect and be relevant; if the Jewish people do not sin, then those sections will not take effect)
15) [line 47] "B'MACHASHAKIM HOSHIVANI, K'MEISEI OLAM." - "He has set me in dark places, like the long ago dead." (Eichah 3:6)
16) [line 48] "AL NA SEHI K'MES" - "Let her not be like one who is dead" (Bamidbar 12:12) - This verse refers to Miriam, who was punished with Tzara'as after speaking Lashon ha'Ra about Moshe. Aharon pleaded with Moshe to forgive her and pray for her, so that she would not be "like one who is dead."
17) [line 48] "HAVAH LI VANIM, V'IM AYIN MESAH ANOCHI." - "Give me children, and if not I am dead." (Bereishis 30:1) - Rachel, who had no children, pleaded with Yakov to grant her children, for without them, she was like dead.
18) [line 50] "LU HIKSHAVTA L'MITZVOSAI, VAYEHI CHA'NAHAR SHELOMECHA, V'TZIDKASCHA K'GALEI HA'YAM. VAYEHI CHA'CHOL ZAR'ECHA, V'TZE'ETZA'EI ME'ECHA KIM'OSAV..." - "If only you would have listened to My commandments, your peace would be like a river, and your righteousness like the waves of the sea. Your offspring would be like the sand, and those who emerge from your innards like its (the sea's) innards..." (Yeshayah 48:18-19)
19) [last line] "... V'NAFSHENU KATZAH BA'LECHEM HA'KELOKEL." - "... and our soul is disgusted with the insubstantial food." (Bamidbar 21:5) - The Jewish people complained about having no food and water, and about the Man that HaSh-m sent them, saying that it was "Kelokel," or "too light," in that it did not produce any waste. They thought that it was endangering their bodies when, in truth, it was a great kindness that HaSh-m made the Man produce no waste.
20) [line 9] "ASHREICHEM ZOR'EI AL KOL MAYIM, MESHALCHEI REGEL HA'SHOR VEHA'CHAMOR" - "Fortunate will you be, those who sow upon all waters, who send to roam freely the bull and the donkey." (Yeshayah 32:20)
21) [line 14] "ZIR'U LACHEM LITZ'DAKAH, KITZRU LEFI CHESED." - "Sow for yourselves for righteousness, reap according to kindness." (Hoshea 10:12)
22) [line 16] "HOY KOL TZAMEI LECHU LAMAYIM..." - "Ho! Everyone who is thirsty, go to the water..." (Yeshayah 55:1)
23a) [line 18] OL - yoke
b) [line 19] MASOY - load/burden
24) [line 21] PERAKIM - periods of time
25) [line 22] IMAH MACHARTI LISHCHOT; BITAH MACHARTI LISHCHOT - its mother I sold in order to be slaughtered; its daughter I sold in order to be slaughtered (OSO V'ES BENO)
(a) It is forbidden to slaughter a cow, female sheep or female goat and her offspring on the same day, as it states in Vayikra 22:28, "v'Shor O Seh, Oso v'Es Beno Lo Sishchatu b'Yom Echad."
(b) At certain times of year (as enumerated in the Gemara), it is assumed that one who buys an animal buys it in order to slaughter it and use its meat. Therefore, the seller must inform the buyer if he sold the animal's mother on that day, so that the buyer will not transgress the prohibition of slaughtering the daughter on the same day that the mother was slaughtered.
26) [line 23] CHAG - the festival of Sukos
27) [line 30] SHTEI SHABASOS - two weeks
28) [line 30] ANAN DI'SHECHICHEI MUMIN D'PASLEI AFILU DOKIN SHEB'AYIN - for us, blemishes [that invalidate an animal from being brought as a Korban] are common, for even a blemish in the eye invalidates [the animal] (MUMIN: DOKIN SHEB'AYIN)
(a) The following is a list of blemishes that invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice (Vayikra 22:22-24, based partially on Rav Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah"). Although there is a dispute as to the precise meaning of the names of the Mumim, all of the blemishes are known through tradition (RAMBAM, Perush ha'Mishnah to Bechoros 7:2).
1. AVERES - blind (even in one eye)
2. SHAVUR - broken-limbed
3. CHARUTZ - gashed; this includes a perforated or split eyelid, nose or lip, or a gash anyplace where there is a bone
4. YABELES - warts
5. GARAV - mange, the animal equivalent of eczema
6. YALEFES - ringworm
7. SARU'A - an extra limb or an overgrown limb
8. KALUT - a missing limb or un-split hooves
9. MA'UCH - testicles crushed by hand
10. KATUS - testicles crushed by an implement
11. NATUK - testicles that are pulled loose
12. KARUS - severed testicles
(b) "Dokin sheb'Ayin" (lit. eye's web, O.F. teile) refers to a thin film (cataract?) that develops due to an eye-disease which is considered to be a blemish, or, alternatively, a cut on the eyelids, that disqualifies an animal from being brought as a Korban, as the Torah states in Vayikra 21:20.
29) [line 32] MECHUSAR EVER (BENEI NOACH: MECHUSAR EVER)
Benei Noach are prohibited from offering, as a Korban to HaSh-m, an animal that is missing a limb (see next entry). Their idolatrous descendants adopted this precept into their own practices, and they do not offer to their idols an animal that is missing a limb.
30) [line 34] "UMI'KOL HA'CHAI, MI'KOL BASAR, SHENAYIM MI'KOL [TAVI EL HA'TEIVAH L'HACHAYOS ITACH]" - "And from all living things, from all flesh, two of everything [you shall bring into the ark to keep alive with you]" (Bereishis 6:19) - This command to Noach teaches that the animals which he will, in the future, offer as Korbanos to HaSh-m must be fully alive -- i.e. all of its limbs must be intact.
31) [line 36] ROSHEI EVARIM - limb-tips
32) [line 37] TEREIFAH (TEREIFAH: TEREIFAH EINAH YOLEDES)
(a) A Tereifah is a person or an animal that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in his or its death within a year. The signs of a Tereifah are described in Chulin 42a et seq. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year -- see Chulin 42a-b.)
(b) There is a dispute in the Gemara (Chulin 57b, and as mentioned here) whether or not a Tereifah is able to give birth.
Index to Background for Maseches Avodah Zarah